Best interracial date richmond va opening hours

best interracial date richmond va opening hours

Richmond, VA. 316 members. Public group We are open to all aspects of having fun that will bring Christian men and women of different races Black/African American, Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic/Latino all races are welcomed. If you are not a christian you are welcomed as well. The premise for this group is not only to come together to have loads of fun but to build lasting friendships and relationships with the opposite sex You should join this group if you are comfortable uploading a pic of you, open to dating outside of your race or making friendships outside your race. As well as if you are warming up to dating and making friendships outside your race. We will dine together, cook together, go to the movies, or just get together and watch movies.

best interracial date richmond va opening hours

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best interracial date richmond va opening hours

best interracial date richmond va opening hours - Current Local Time in Richmond, Virginia, USA

best interracial date richmond va opening hours

23173, 23218–23242, 23249–23250, 23255, 23260–23261, 23269, 23273–23274, 23276, 23278–23279, 23282, 23284–23286, 23288–23295, 23297–23298 51-76000 feature ID 1499957 Website Nomenclature evolution Prior to 1071 – : a town in Normandy, France. 1071 to 1501 – : a castle town in Yorkshire, UK. 1501 to 1742 – , a palace town in Surrey, UK. 1742 to present – Richmond, Virginia. As of the , the city's population was 204,214; in 2016, the population was estimated to be 223,170, making Richmond the .

The has a population of 1,260,029, the . Richmond is located at the of the , 44 miles (71 km) west of , 66 miles (106 km) east of , 100 miles (160 km) east of and 98 miles (158 km) south of Surrounded by and counties, the city is located at the intersections of and , and encircled by and . Major suburbs include to the southwest, to the south, to the southeast, to the east, to the north and west, to the west and to the northeast.

The site of Richmond had been an important village of the , and was briefly settled by English colonists from in 1609, and in 1610–1611. The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became the capital of the in 1780, replacing . During the period, several notable events occurred in the city, including 's "" speech in 1775 at , and the passage of the written by . During the , Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the .

The city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric systems. The neighborhood is a national hub of commerce and culture. Richmond's economy is primarily driven by law, finance, and government, with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the . The city is home to both the , one of 13 , and the , one of 12 .

and , companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. See also: Colonial era After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at , led explorers northwest up the , to an area that was inhabited by Native Americans. In 1737, planter commissioned to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of near (and now part of) London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the from in England, where he had spent time during his youth.

The settlement was laid out in April 1737, and was incorporated as a town in 1742. Revolution delivered his "Liberty or Death" speech at in Richmond, helping to ignite the American Revolution In 1775, delivered his famous "" speech in in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack.

The latter motive proved to be in vain, and in 1781, under the command of , Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor to flee as the Virginia militia, led by , defended the city. Early United States Richmond recovered quickly from the war, and by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the (drafted by , 1743-1826) was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the in the United States.

A permanent home for the new government, the of the building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of , and was completed in 1788. After the (1775-1783), Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising helped design the from east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the to the flowing westward into the then eventually to the .

The legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in .

The resistance to the slave trade was growing by the mid-nineteenth century; in one famous case in 1848, made history by having himself nailed into a small box and shipped from Richmond through 's northward on the (a well-used "" route for escaping disguised slaves) to abolitionists in , in the free state of , escaping slavery.

By 1850, Richmond was connected by the to , where ships carrying over 200 tonnes of cargo could connect to or or passenger liners could reach through the harbor.

Richmond was connected to the North on the in the nineteenth Century which was later replaced by, . Civil War Retreating Confederates burned one-fourth of Richmond in April 1865 On April 17, 1861, five days after the Confederate attack on , the state legislature voted to secede from the and join the newly organized .

Official action came in May, after the Confederacy promised to move its national capital from its provisional home in to Richmond. The city was located at the end of a long supply line, which made it difficult to defend, requiring the bulk of the and arguably the Confederacy's best troops and commanders.

It became the main target of Union armies, especially in the campaigns of 1862 and 1864–65. In addition to Virginia and Confederate government offices and hospitals, a railroad hub, and one of the largest slave markets, Richmond had the largest iron foundry and arms factory during the war, the , which turned out artillery and other munitions, including the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the (the salvaged former steam frigate ), the world's first warship used in war, as well as much of the Confederates' heavy machinery.

The shared quarters with the in designed , with the Confederacy's executive mansion, known as the "", located two blocks away on Clay Street. The followed in late June and early July 1862, during which commanding Union General-in-Chief threatened to take Richmond in the but ultimately failed.

Three years later, as March 1865 ended, Richmond became indefensible after nearby and several remaining rail supply lines to the south and southwest were broken. On March 25, Confederate General 's desperate attack on east of Petersburg failed. On April 1, Federal Cavalry General , assigned to interdict the Southside Railroad, met brigades commanded by Southern Gen.

at the junction, smashing them, taking thousands of prisoners, and encouraging Union General-in-Chief to order a general advance. When the Union Sixth Corps broke through Confederate lines on the Boydton Plank Road south of Petersburg, Confederate casualties exceeded 5,000, or about a tenth of General Lee's defending army.

Lee then informed President that he was about to evacuate Richmond. Davis and his cabinet, along with the government archives and Treasury gold, left the city by train that night, as government officials burned documents and departing Confederate troops burned tobacco and other warehouses to deny their contents to the victors. On April 2, 1865, General , commander of the 25th Corps of the , accepted the city's surrender from the and a group of leading citizens who remained.

The Union troops eventually managed to stop the raging fires but about 25% of the city's buildings were destroyed. President visited General Grant at Petersburg on April 3, and took a launch to Richmond up the the next day, while Jefferson Davis attempted to organize his remaining Confederate government further southwest at . Lincoln met Confederate assistant secretary of War , and handed him a note inviting Virginia's state legislature to end their rebellion. After Campbell spun the note to Confederate legislators as a possible end to the , Lincoln rescinded his offer and ordered General Weitzel to prevent the former Confederate state legislature from meeting.

Union forces killed, wounded or captured 8,000 Confederate troops at southwest of Petersburg on April 6, as the Southerners continued a general retreat southwestward. General Lee continued to reject General Grant's surrender suggestions until Sheridan's infantry and cavalry moved around the shrinking and appeared in front of his withdrawing forces on April 8, cutting off the line of further retreat southwest. He surrendered his remaining approximately 10,000 troops at meeting General Grant the following morning at the McLean Home.

Davis was captured on May 10 near and taken back to Virginia, where he was imprisoned for two years at until freed on bail. Postbellum Richmond emerged a decade after the smoldering rubble of the to resume its position as an economic powerhouse, with iron front buildings and massive brick factories.

Canal traffic peaked in the 1860s and slowly gave way to railroads, allowing Richmond to become a major railroad crossroads, eventually including the site of the world's first triple railroad crossing.

Tobacco warehousing and processing continued to play a role, boosted by the world's first cigarette-rolling machine, invented by of in 1880/81. Contributing to Richmond's resurgence was the first successful electrically powered system in the United States, the .

Designed by electric power pioneer , the trolley system opened its first line in 1888, and electric streetcar lines rapidly spread to other cities across the country.

Sprague's system used an overhead wire and trolley pole to collect current, with electric motors on the car's trucks. In Richmond, the transition from streetcars to buses began in May 1947 and was completed on November 25, 1949. 20th century By the early 20th century, Richmond had an extensive network of electric streetcars, as shown here crossing the Mayo Bridge across the James River, ca.

1917 By the beginning of the 20th century, the city's population had reached 85,050 in 5 square miles (13 km 2), making it the most densely populated city in the .

In 1900, the Census Bureau reported Richmond's population as 62.1% white and 37.9% black. Freed slaves and their descendants created a thriving African-American business community, and the city's historic became known as the "Wall Street of Black America." In 1903, African-American businesswoman and financier chartered St.

Luke Penny Savings Bank, and served as its first president, as well as the first female bank president in the United States. Today, the bank is called the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, and it is the oldest surviving African-American bank in the U.S.

Other figures from this time included In 1910, the former city of was consolidated with the city of Richmond, and in 1914, the city annexed Barton Heights, Ginter Park, and Highland Park areas of . In May 1914, Richmond became the headquarters of the . Several major performing arts venues were constructed during the 1920s, including what are now the Landmark Theatre, Byrd Theatre, and Carpenter Theatre.

The city's first radio station, , began broadcasting in 1925. (CBS 6), the first television station in Richmond, was the first television station south of Washington, D.C. Between 1963 and 1965, there was a "downtown boom" that led to the construction of more than 700 buildings in the city. In 1968, was created by the merger of the with the . In 1970, Richmond's borders expanded by an additional 27 square miles (70 km 2) on the south.

After several years of court cases in which fought annexation, more than 47,000 people who once were Chesterfield County residents found themselves within the city's perimeters on January 1, 1970. In 1996, still-sore tensions arose amid controversy involved in placing a statue of African American Richmond native and tennis star to the series of statues of Confederate Generals of the Civil War on .

After several months of controversy, the bronze statue of Ashe was finally completed on Monument Avenue facing the opposite direction from the Confederate Generals on July 10, 1996. A multimillion-dollar flood wall was completed in 1995, in order to protect low-lying areas of city from the oft-rising waters of the James River.

As a result, the River District businesses grew rapidly, and today the area is home to much of Richmond's entertainment, dining and nightlife activity, bolstered by the creation of a Canal Walk along the city's former industrial canals.

See also: Richmond is located at (37.538, −77.462). According to the , the city has a total area of 62 square miles (160 km 2), of which 60 square miles (160 km 2) is land and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km 2) of it (4.3%) is water. The city is located in the , at the highest navigable point of the James River. The Piedmont region is characterized by relatively low, rolling hills, and lies between the low, flat region and the . Significant bodies of water in the region include the , the , and the .

The (MSA), the in the United States, includes the independent cities of Richmond, , , and , as well as the counties of , , , , , , , , and . As of July 1, 2009 , the total population of the Richmond—Petersburg was 1,258,251. Cityscape See also: Richmond's original street grid, laid out in 1737, included the area between what are now Broad, 17th, and 25th Streets and the James River.

Modern is located slightly farther west, on the slopes of Shockoe Hill. Nearby neighborhoods include , the historically significant and low-lying area between Shockoe Hill and , and Monroe Ward, which contains the . Richmond's East End includes neighborhoods like rapidly gentrifying , home to , as well as poorer areas like , Union Hill, and Fairmont, and public housing projects like , Whitcomb Court, Fairfield Court, and Creighton Court closer to .

The area between Belvidere Street, , , and the river, which includes , is socioeconomically and architecturally diverse. North of Broad Street, the Carver and Newtowne West neighborhoods are demographically similar to neighboring , with Carver experiencing some gentrification due to its proximity to VCU.

The affluent area between the , Main Street, Broad Street, and VCU, known as the , is home to , an outstanding collection of , and many students. West of the Boulevard is the Museum District, the location of the and the . South of the are , , , the predominantly black working class Randolph neighborhood, and white working class . Cary Street between Interstate 195 and the is a popular commercial area called .

View of the Carillon from across the James River Richmond's Northside is home to numerous listed historic districts. Neighborhoods such as and Barton Heights began to develop at the end of the 19th century when the new streetcar system made it possible for people to live on the outskirts of town and still commute to jobs downtown. Other prominent Northside neighborhoods include Azalea, Barton Heights, Bellevue, Chamberlayne, Ginter Park, Highland Park, and Rosedale.

Farther west is the affluent, suburban . Windsor Farms is among its best-known sections. The West End also includes middle to lower income neighborhoods, such as Laurel, Farmington and the areas surrounding the Regency Mall. More affluent areas include Glen Allen, Short Pump, and the areas of Tuckahoe away from Regency Mall, which can all be found north and northwest of the city. The and the Country Club of Virginia can be found here as well, which are located just inside the City Limits.

The portion of the city south of the James River is known as the Southside. Neighborhoods in the city's Southside area range from affluent and middle class suburban neighborhoods Westover Hills, Forest Hill, Southampton, Stratford Hills, Oxford, Huguenot Hills, Hobby Hill, and Woodland Heights to the impoverished and Blackwell areas, the Hillside Court housing projects, and the ailing Jefferson Davis Highway commercial corridor.

Other Southside neighborhoods include Fawnbrook, Broad Rock, Cherry Gardens, Cullenwood, and Beaufont Hills. Much of Southside developed a suburban character as part of before being annexed by Richmond, most notably in 1970. Climate Flooding of Old Manchester during , 1972 Richmond has a ( Cfa), with hot and humid summers and moderately cold winters. The mountains to the west act as a partial barrier to outbreaks of cold, continental air in winter; Arctic air is delayed long enough to be modified, then further warmed as it subsides in its approach to Richmond.

The open waters of the and Atlantic Ocean contribute to the humid summers and cool winters. The coldest weather normally occurs from late December to early February, and the January daily mean temperature is 37.9 °F (3.3 °C), with an average of 6.0 days with highs at or below the freezing mark. Richmond's Downtown and areas south and east of downtown are situated in USDA 7b while surrounding suburbs and areas to the north and west of Downtown are in the 7a Hardiness Zone.

and temperatures seldom lower to 0 °F (−18 °C), with the most recent subzero (°F) reading occurring on January 7, 2018, when the temperature reached −3 °F (−19 °C). The July daily mean temperature is 79.3 °F (26.3 °C), and high temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) approximately 43 days out of the year; while 100 °F (38 °C) temperatures are not uncommon, they do not occur every year. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −12 °F (−24 °C) on January 19, 1940 up to 107 °F (42 °C) on August 6, 1918.

The record cold daily maximum is 11 °F (−12 °C), set on , while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 81 °F (27 °C), set on July 12, 2011.

is rather uniformly distributed throughout the year. However, dry periods lasting several weeks do occur, especially in autumn when long periods of pleasant, mild weather are most common. There is considerable variability in total monthly amounts from year to year so that no one month can be depended upon to be normal. Snow has been recorded during seven of the twelve months. Falls of 4 inches (10 cm) or more within 24 hours occur an average once per year.

Annual snowfall, however, is usually light, averaging 10.5 inches (27 cm) per season. Snow typically remains on the ground only one or two days at a time, but remained for 16 days in 2010 (January 30 to February 14). Ice storms (freezing rain or glaze) are not uncommon, but they are seldom severe enough to do any considerable damage.

The reaches tidewater at Richmond where flooding may occur in every month of the year, most frequently in March and least in July. and have been responsible for most of the flooding during the summer and early fall months. Hurricanes passing near Richmond have produced record rainfalls.

In 1955, three hurricanes brought record rainfall to Richmond within a six-week period. The most noteworthy of these were and that brought heavy rains five days apart. And in 2004, the downtown area suffered extensive flood damage after the remnants of dumped up to 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall. Damaging storms occur mainly from snow and in winter and from hurricanes, tornadoes, and severe thunderstorms in other seasons.

Damage may be from wind, flooding, or rain, or from any combination of these. are infrequent but some notable occurrences have been observed within the Richmond area. Based on the 1981–2010 period, the average first occurrence of at or below freezing temperatures in the fall is November 4 and the average last occurrence in the spring is April 5. Climate data for , Virginia (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1887–present ) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 81 (27) 83 (28) 94 (34) 96 (36) 100 (38) 104 (40) 105 (41) 107 (42) 103 (39) 99 (37) 86 (30) 81 (27) 107 (42) Mean maximum °F (°C) 69.6 (20.9) 72.0 (22.2) 81.2 (27.3) 88.1 (31.2) 91.2 (32.9) 96.3 (35.7) 98.3 (36.8) 96.8 (36) 93.1 (33.9) 86.3 (30.2) 77.6 (25.3) 70.8 (21.6) 99.3 (37.4) Average high °F (°C) 47.4 (8.6) 51.3 (10.7) 60.0 (15.6) 70.3 (21.3) 77.9 (25.5) 86.1 (30.1) 89.7 (32.1) 87.6 (30.9) 81.2 (27.3) 71.0 (21.7) 61.4 (16.3) 50.7 (10.4) 69.6 (20.9) Average low °F (°C) 28.3 (−2.1) 30.5 (−0.8) 37.1 (2.8) 46.1 (7.8) 55.0 (12.8) 64.5 (18.1) 68.9 (20.5) 67.4 (19.7) 60.1 (15.6) 48.3 (9.1) 39.4 (4.1) 31.4 (−0.3) 48.1 (8.9) Mean minimum °F (°C) 10.3 (−12.1) 15.9 (−8.9) 21.5 (−5.8) 31.1 (−0.5) 41.5 (5.3) 52.5 (11.4) 59.3 (15.2) 57.5 (14.2) 46.3 (7.9) 33.5 (0.8) 24.7 (−4.1) 15.7 (−9.1) 7.8 (−13.4) Record low °F (°C) −12 (−24) −10 (−23) 10 (−12) 19 (−7) 31 (−1) 40 (4) 51 (11) 46 (8) 35 (2) 21 (−6) 10 (−12) −2 (−19) −12 (−24) Average inches (mm) 3.04 (77) 2.76 (70) 4.04 (103) 3.27 (83) 3.78 (96) 3.93 (100) 4.51 (115) 4.66 (118) 4.13 (105) 2.98 (76) 3.24 (82) 3.26 (83) 43.60 (1,107) Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.9 (10) 3.4 (9) 0.6 (2) 0.1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (1) 2.1 (5) 10.3 (26) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.7 8.9 10.3 10.0 10.8 10.0 11.4 9.1 8.4 7.4 8.3 9.7 114.0 Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.9 0.8 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.2 6.1 Average (%) 67.9 65.6 63.0 60.8 69.5 72.2 74.8 77.2 77.0 73.8 69.1 68.9 70.0 Mean monthly 172.5 179.7 233.3 261.6 288.0 306.4 301.4 278.9 237.9 222.8 183.5 163.0 2,829 Percent 56 59 63 66 65 69 67 66 64 64 60 55 64 Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sunshine hours 1961–1990) Census Pop.

%± 3,761 — 5,737 52.5% 9,735 69.7% 12,067 24.0% 16,060 33.1% 20,153 25.5% 27,570 36.8% 37,910 37.5% 51,038 34.6% 63,600 24.6% 81,388 28.0% 85,050 4.5% 127,628 50.1% 171,667 34.5% 182,929 6.6% 193,042 5.5% 230,310 19.3% 219,958 −4.5% 249,621 13.5% 219,214 −12.2% 203,056 −7.4% 197,790 −2.6% 204,214 3.2% Est.

2016 223,170 9.3% U.S. Decennial Census 1790–1960 1900–1990 1990–2000 As of the , there were 204,214 people residing in the city.

50.6% were , 40.8% , 5.0% , 0.3% , 0.1% , 3.6% of some other race and 2.3% . 6.3% were (of any race). Map of racial distribution in Richmond, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) As of the census of 2000, there were 197,790 people, 84,549 households, and 43,627 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,292.6 people per square mile (1,271.3/km²). There were 92,282 housing units at an average density of 1,536.2 per square mile (593.1/km²).

The racial makeup of the city was 57.2% , 38.3% , 0.2% , 1.3% , 0.1% , 1.5% from , and 1.5% from two or more races. or of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 84,549 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.1% were married couples living together, 20.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families.

37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 21.8% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,121, and the median income for a family was $38,348.

Males had a median income of $30,874 versus $25,880 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 17.1% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.

Crime During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Richmond experienced a spike in overall crime, in particular, the city's . The city had 93 murders for the year of 1985, with a murder rate of 41.9 killings committed per 100,000 residents. Over the next decade, the city saw a major increase in total . In 1990 there were 114 murders, for a murder rate of 56.1 killings per 100,000 residents. There were 120 murders in 1995, resulting in a murder rate of 59.1 killings per 100,000 residents, one of the highest in the United States.

In 2004, ranked Richmond as the ninth (out of 354) most dangerous city in the . In 2005, Richmond was ranked as the fifth most dangerous city overall and the 12th most dangerous in the United States. The following year, Richmond saw a decline in crime, ranking as the 15th most dangerous city in the United States.

By 2008, Richmond's position on the list had fallen to 49th. By 2012, Richmond was no longer in the 'top' 200. Richmond's rate of major crime, including violent and property crimes, decreased 47 percent between 2004 and 2009 to its lowest level in more than a quarter of a century. Various forms of crime tend to be declining, yet remaining above state and national averages.

In 2008, the city had recorded the lowest homicide rate since 1971. for Richmond for the year of 2013: City of Richmond only Richmond Rate per 100,000 inhabitants Violent crime 1,327 3,029 243.8 Murder and non-negligent manslaughter 37 77 6.2 Rape 43 249 20.0 Robbery 624 1,128 90.8 Aggravated assault 623 1,575 126.8 Property crime 8,704 29,761 2,395.7 Burglary 1,817 5,533 445.4 Larceny/Theft 5,949 22,329 1,797.4 Motor vehicle theft 938 1,899 152.9 In recent years, as in many other American cities, Richmond has witnessed a rise in homicides.

The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported 61 murders in Richmond in 2016, marking it "the city's deadliest year in a decade." Religion , built in 1741, is the oldest church in the city In 1786, the , penned in 1779 by , was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in Richmond.

The site is now commemorated by the . Richmond has several historic churches. Because of its early English colonial history from the early 17th century to 1776, Richmond has a number of prominent Anglican/Episcopal churches including , and . Methodists and Baptists made up another section of early churches, and was the first of these, established in 1780. In the tradition, the first Presbyterian Church in the City of Richmond was First Presbyterian Church, organized on June 18, 1812.

On February 5, 1845, was founded, which was a historic church where attended and was the first building and the first church to be built in Richmond. was dedicated and became the first Catholic church in Richmond on May 25, 1834. The city is also home to the historic which is the for the .

The , dedicated in 1906 The in Richmond was Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom was the sixth congregation in the United States. By 1822 K.K. Beth Shalom members worshipped in the first synagogue building in Virginia. They eventually merged with , an offshoot of Beth Shalom. There are two Orthodox Synagogues, Keneseth Beth Israel and Chabad of Virginia. There is an Orthodox K–12 school system known as Rudlin Torah academy, which also includes a post high-school program.

There are two Conservative synagogues, Beth El and Or Atid. There are three Reform synagogues, Bonay Kodesh, Beth Ahabah and Or Ami. Along with such religious congregations, there are a variety of other Jewish charitable, educational and social service institutions, each serving the Jewish and general communities. These include the Weinstein Jewish Community Center, Jewish Family Services, Jewish Community Federation of Richmond and .

Due to the influx of German in the 1840s, was formed in 1843. Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Cathedral held its first worship service in a rented room at 309 North 7th Street in 1917. The cathedral relocated to 30 Malvern Avenue in 1960 and is noted as one of two Eastern Orthodox churches in Richmond and home to the annual Richmond Greek Festival. There are seven current in the Greater Richmond area, with three more currently in construction, accommodating the growing Muslim population, the first one being Masjid Bilal.

In the 1950s, Muslims from the East End got organized under Nation of Islam (NOI). They used to meet in Temple #24 located on North Avenue. After the NOI split in 1975, the Muslims who joined mainstream Islam, start meeting at Shabaaz Restaurant on Nine Mile Road. By 1976, the Muslims used to meet in a rented church. They tried to buy this church, but due to financial difficulties the Muslims instead bought an old grocery store at Chimbarazoo Boulevard, the present location of Masjid Bilal.

Initially, the place was called "Masjid Muhammad #24". Only by 1990 did the Muslims renamed it to "Masjid Bilal". Masjid Bilal was followed by the Islamic Center of Virginia, ICVA masjid. The ICVA was established in 1973 as a non profit tax exempt organization. With aggressive fundraising, ICVA was able to buy land on Buford road. Construction of the new masjid began in the early 1980s. The rest of the five current masjids in the Richmond area are Islamic Center of Richmond (ICR) in the west end, Masjid Umm Barakah on 2nd street downtown, Islamic Society of Greater Richmond (ISGR) in the west end, Masjidullah in the north side, and Masjid Ar-Rahman in the east end.

Watts Hall at is actively practiced, particularly in suburban areas of Henrico and Chesterfield. Some 6,000 families of Indian descent resided in the Richmond Region as of 2011. Hindus are served by several temples and cultural centers. The two most familiar are the Cultural Center of India (CCI) located off of Iron Bridge Road in Chesterfield County and the Hindu Center of Virginia in Henrico County which has garnered national fame and awards for being the first religious facility in the commonwealth.

in Richmond include: the school of theology at ; a Presbyterian seminary, , and the . The of the is located in the neighborhood of the city. Bishops that sit in Richmond include those of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia (the denomination's largest); the Richmond Area of the United Methodist Church (Virginia Annual Conference), the nation's second-largest and one of the oldest.

The Presbytery of the James—Presbyterian Church (USA) – also is based in the Richmond area. The was canonically erected by on July 11, 1820. Today there are 235,816 Catholics at 146 parishes in the Diocese of Richmond. The city of Richmond is home to 19 Catholic parishes. is home to the current bishop Most Reverend who was appointed by on December 15, 2017. Richmond tobacco warehouse ca. 1910s Richmond's strategic location on the , built on undulating hills at the rocky separating the and of Virginia, provided a natural nexus for the development of commerce.

Throughout these three centuries and three modes of transportation, the downtown has always been a hub, with the Great Turning Basin for boats, the world's only triple crossing of rail lines, and the intersection of two major interstates. Law and finance have long been driving forces in the economy. The city is home to both the , one of 13 , and the , one of 12 , as well as offices for international companies such as , , , and numerous other banks and brokerages.

Richmond is also home to four of the largest law firms in the United States: , , , and . Another law firm with a major Richmond presence is , which merged with Richmond-based Mays & Valentine LLP in 2001.

Since the 1960s Richmond has been a prominent hub for advertising agencies and advertising related businesses. One of the most notable Richmond-based agencies is , founded in 1965 and currently employing 500 people. As a result of local advertising agency support, 's graduate advertising school (VCU Brandcenter) is consistently ranked the No. 1 advertising graduate program in the country. Richmond is home to the rapidly developing Virginia BioTechnology Research Park, which opened in 1995 as an incubator facility for biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.

Located adjacent to the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) Campus of , the park currently [ ] has more than 575,000 square feet (53,400 m 2) of research, laboratory and office space for a diverse tenant mix of companies, research institutes, government laboratories and non-profit organizations.

The , which maintains the nation's waiting list, occupies one building in the park. opened a $350 million research and development facility in the park in 2007.

Once fully developed, park officials expect the site to employ roughly 3,000 scientists, technicians and engineers. Richmond's revitalized downtown includes the Canal Walk, a new Greater Richmond Convention Center, and expansion on both campuses.

A new performing arts center, , opened on September 12, 2009. The complex included a renovation of the Carpenter Center and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in parts of the old Thalhimers department store.

Richmond is also fast-becoming known for its food scene, with several restaurants in the Fan, Church Hill, Jackson Ward and elsewhere around the city generating regional and national attention for their fare. magazine named Richmond "The Next Great American Food City" in August 2014. while Metzger Bar & Butchery made its "Best New Restaurants: 12 To Watch" list.

, and production is also growing in the River City, with twelve micro-breweries in city proper; the oldest is Legend Brewery, founded in 1994. Two cideries, Buskey Cider and Blue Bee Cider, are located in the popular beverage neighborhood of , and are joined by nine breweries, one meadery, and one distillery . Three , Reservoir Distillery, Belle Isle Craft Spirits and James River Distillery, were established in 2010, 2013 and 2014, respectively.

Additionally, Richmond is gaining attention from the film and television industry, with several high-profile films shot in the metro region in the past few years, including the major motion picture which led to 's third Oscar, with , airing on the and , starring and airing on .

Richmond was the main filming location for the drama series Mercy Street, which premiered in Winter 2016. Several organizations, including the Virginia Film Office and the Virginia Production Alliance, along with events like the Richmond International Film Festival and French Film Festival, continue to put draw supporters of film and media to the region. Fortune 500 companies and other large corporations Six companies are headquartered in the Richmond area The Greater Richmond area was named the third-best city for business by in September 2007, ranking behind only the Minneapolis and Denver areas and just above Boston.

The area is home to eight companies: electric utility ; ; ; ; Company; , , and . However, only Dominion Resources and WestRock Company are headquartered within the city of Richmond; the others are located in the neighboring counties of and . In 2008, Altria moved its corporate HQ from New York City to Henrico County, adding another Fortune 500 corporation to Richmond's list. In February 2006, announced that they would move from , to Richmond in 2008 with the help of the Greater Richmond Partnership, a regional economic development organization that also helped locate , , and , to the region.

In July 2015, MeadWestvaco merged with Georgia-based Rock-Tenn Company creating Company. Other companies, while not headquartered in the area, do have a major presence. These include (based in ), (officially based in , but founded in Richmond with its operations center and most employees in the Richmond area), and the medical and pharmaceutical giant (based in San Francisco).

Capital One and Altria company's Philip Morris USA are two of the largest private Richmond-area employers. maintains a production facility in South Richmond known as the Spruance Plant. , the less-than-truckload division of and formerly known as , has its corporate headquarters in Richmond. Other companies based in Richmond include engineering specialists , chemical company ; , a security and armored car company; , a freight carrier, , a tobacco merchant; , now Windstream, a telephone, internet, and digital television provider formed in Richmond in 1998; , a top 30 accounting firm serving the ; the law firm of ; , an insurance company subsidiary of and , a company specializing in broadcast media.

Poverty As of 2016, 24.8% of Richmond residents live below the , the second-highest among the 30 largest cities and counties in Virginia. An report issued in 2016 also determined that Richmond had a rate of 39%, more than double the rate for Virginia as a whole.

As of 2016, Richmond had the second-highest rate of filings and judgments of any American city with a population of 100,000 or more (in states where complete data was available).

Some Richmond neighborhoods, such as the public-housing complex, are particularly well known for concentrations of poverty. 1936 entrance to the Several of the city's large general museums are located near the Boulevard. On Boulevard proper are the and the , lending their name to what is sometimes called the Museum District. Nearby on Broad Street is the , housed in the former 1919 Broad Street Union Station. Immediately adjacent is the , and two blocks away, the .

Within the downtown are the and the . Elsewhere are the and the . Richmond is home to museums and battlefields of the American Civil War. Near the riverfront is the Visitors Center and the , both housed in the former buildings of the , where much of the ordnance for the war was produced. In , near the , is the , along with the Davis Mansion, also known as the White House of the Confederacy; both feature a wide variety of objects and material from the era. The temporary home of former General Robert E.

Lee still stands on Franklin Street in downtown Richmond. The history of slavery and emancipation are also increasingly represented: there is a former slave trail along the river that leads to Ancarrow's Boat Ramp and Historic Site which has been developed with interpretive signage, and in 2007, the Reconciliation Statue was placed in Shockoe Bottom, with parallel statues placed in and representing points of the .

Other historical points of interest include , the site of 's famous "" speech, and the , features many of his writings and other artifacts of his life, particularly when he lived in the city as a child, a student, and a successful writer. The House, the home of the former , is also located downtown and features many of his writings and objects from his life.

is the burial grounds of two as well as many Civil War officers and soldiers. collects, preserves and exhibits materials that focus on Jewish history and culture specifically connected to Richmond, VA. The city is home to many monuments and memorials, most notably those along .

Other monuments include the monument, the monument in Jackson Ward, the monument near Byrd Park. Located near Byrd Park is the famous , a 56-bell tower. Dedicated in 1956, the is located on Belvedere overlooking the river, and is a monument to Virginians who died in battle in World War II, the , the , the , the , and the .

is a and estate located on the James River in the neighborhood of Richmond. The manor house was built in the late 15th century, and was originally located in the area of , in the of in . Visual and performing arts Musicians of note associated with Richmond include , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . Richmond is also home of , a based in a warehouse.

Murals The annual RVA Street Art Festival, a festival of and other artists, has taken place since 2013. Professional performing companies From earliest days, Virginia, and Richmond in particular, have welcomed live theatrical performances.

From 's early productions of Shakespeare in Williamsburg, the focus shifted to Richmond's antebellum prominence as a main colonial and early 19th century performance venue for such celebrated American and English actors as William Macready, Edwin Forrest, and the Booth family.

In the 20th century, Richmonders' love of theater continued with many amateur troupes and regular touring professional productions. In the 1960s a small renaissance or golden age accompanied the growth of professional dinner theaters and the fostering of theater by the Virginia Museum, reaching a peak in the 1970s with the establishment of a resident Equity company at the Virginia Museum Theater (now the Leslie Cheek) and the birth of Theatre IV, a company that continues to this day under the name Virginia Repertory Theatre.

• is Central Virginia's largest professional theatre organization. It was created in 2012 when Barksdale Theatre and Theatre IV, which had shared one staff for over a decade, merged to become one company.

With an annual budget of over $5 million, the theatre employs over 240 artists each year, presenting a season at the November Theatre and Theatre Gym at Virginia Rep Center, as well as productions at the Hanover Tavern and The Children's Theatre in The Shops at Willow Lawn.

The historic November Theatre opened in 1911 as the Empire Theatre, offering stock and vaudeville performances. In 1915 it changed its name from the Empire to the Strand and continued under that name until damaged by fire in 1927.

It reopened in 1933 as the "Booker T," and served as the leading black movie house for many years when Richmond was segregated. It closed in 1974 and was idle until real estate developer Mitchell Kambis rescued and renovated it. Kambis restored the Empire name and in 1979 leased it to Keith Fowler, artistic director of the American Revels Company. Revels restored live professional theater to downtown Richmond. Revels was succeeded by Theatre IV in 1984. On its 100th anniversary in 2011 the theatre was further restored when Sara Belle and Neil November made a $2 million gift to Theatre IV and Barksdale.[1] The November now serves as Virginia Rep's headquarters and home and anchors the Arts District.

It is currently under the leadership of Artistic Director Bruce Miller and Managing Director Phil Whiteway. • , founded in 1957. • , founded in 1993, delivers theater programs exploring themes of equality, identity, affection and family across sexual orientation and gender spectrums.

• • , the Official Opera Company of the Commonwealth of Virginia, founded in 1974. Presents eight mainstage performances every year at the . Other venues and companies The Carpenter Theatre Other venues and companies include: • The , the city-owned . • The , after lying dormant for eight years, re-opened in 2011 in the heart of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts at 200 N. Boulevard. The elegant 500-seat proscenium stage was constructed in 1955 to match then museum director Leslie Cheek's vision of a theater worthy of a fine arts institution.

Operating for years as the Virginia Museum Theater (VMT), it supported an amateur community theater under the direction of Robert Telford. When Cheek retired, he advised trustees on the 1969 appointment of as head of the theater arts division and artistic director of VMT. Fowler led the theater to become the city's first resident \ theater, adding major foreign authors and the premieres of new American works to the repertory.

Under his leadership VMT reached a "golden age," gaining international recognition and more than doubling its subscription base. Successive artistic administrations changed the name of the theater to "TheatreVirginia." Deficits caused TheatreVirginia to close its doors in 2002. Now, renovated and renamed for its founder, the Leslie Cheek is restoring live performance to VMFA and, while no longer supporting a resident company, it is available for special theatrical and performance events.

• The is Richmond's premier music venue. It holds 1500 people and has shows regularly throughout the week. It opened winter of 2007 and was built in 1923. It features a state-of-the-art V-DOSC sound system, only the sixth installed in the country and only the third installed on the East Coast.

• , a not-for-profit organization that is one of the largest nongovernmental arts learning centers in the state of , founded in 1963. Serves 28,000 individuals annually. • Richmond CenterStage, a performing arts center that opened in Downtown Richmond in 2009 as part of an expansion of earlier facilities. The complex includes a renovation of the 1,700-seat and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in the location of the old Thalhimers department store.

• The in , a from the 1920s that features second-run movies, as well as the . • School of the Arts, consistently ranked as one of the best in the nation. • , an amphitheatre in , where the Richmond Department of Recreation and Parks presents an annual Festival of the Arts. • (School of the Performing Arts in the Richmond Community).

SPARC was founded in 1981, and trained children to become "triple threats", meaning they were equally versed in singing, acting, and dancing. SPARC has become the largest community-based theater arts education program in Virginia and it offers classes to every age group, during the summer and throughout the year. • , the former summer concert venue located at .

Commercial art galleries include Metro Space Gallery and in a newly designated arts district. Not-for-profit galleries include , and . In addition, in 2008, a new 47,000-square-foot (4,400 m 2) Gay Community Center opened on the city's north side, which hosts meetings of many kinds, and includes a large art gallery space. Literary arts Richmond has long been a hub for literature and writers.

was a child in the city, and the town's oldest stone house is now a museum to his life and works. , which included his writing, is just one of many notable publications that began in Richmond.

Other noteworthy authors who have called Richmond home include Pulitzer-winning , controversial figure , , , , and MacArthur Fellow . was born in Richmond, as was creator . graduated from , where the creative writing faculty has included Marshall, , , , , , , and Notable graduates include , , and A community-based organization called serves the greater Richmond area; it sponsors many programs for writers at all stages of their careers and puts on an annual writers' conference that draws attendees from miles away.

Architecture Thomas Jefferson designed the in Richmond Richmond is home to many significant structures, including some designed by notable architects. The city contains diverse styles, including significant examples of Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Neoclassical, Egyptian Revival, Romanesque Revival, Gothic Revival, Tudor Revival, Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Art Deco, Modernist, International, and Postmodern buildings.

Much of Richmond's early architecture was destroyed by the Evacuation Fire in 1865. It is estimated that 25% of all buildings in Richmond were destroyed during this fire. Even fewer now remain due to construction and that has taken place since . In spite of this, Richmond contains many historically significant buildings and districts. Buildings remain from Richmond's colonial period, such as the and the , both built before 1750. of the VCU School of Medicine (1845), Richmond, Virginia Architectural classicism is heavily represented in all districts of the city, particularly in Downtown, the Fan, and the Museum District.

Several notable classical architects have designed buildings in Richmond. The Virginia State Capitol was designed by and in 1785.

It is the second-oldest US statehouse in continuous use (after Maryland's) and was the first US government building built in the style of architecture, setting the trend for other state houses and the federal government buildings (including the and ) in Washington, D.C.

Robert Mills designed on Broad Street. Adjoining it is the 1845 , one of the few buildings in the United States. The , housed in , designed by The firm of designed as well as on , designed as a private residence in the Tudor style, now serving as the Branch Museum of Architecture and Design. Broad Street Station (or Union Station), designed in the style, is no longer a functioning station but is now home to the . , designed by Wilson, Harris, and Richards, has been returned to use in its original purpose.

The Jefferson Hotel and the Commonwealth Club were both designed by the classically trained Beaux-Arts architects Carrère and Hastings. Many buildings on the campus, including Jeter Hall and Ryland Hall, were designed by , most famous for his Princeton University Chapel and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine.

Richmond's urban residential neighborhoods also hold particular significance to the city's fabric. The Fan, the Museum District, Jackson Ward, Carver, Carytown, Oregon Hill and Church Hill (among others) are largely single use town homes and mixed use or full retail/dining establishments.

These districts are anchored by large streets such as Franklin Street, Cary Street, the Boulevard, and Monument Avenue. The city's growth in population over the last decade has been concentrated in these areas. Among Richmond's most interesting architectural features is its .

Second only to in its concentration of cast iron work, the city is home to a unique collection of cast iron porches, balconies, fences, and finials. Richmond's position as a center of iron production helped to fuel its popularity within the city. At the height of production in the 1890, 25 foundries operated in the city employing nearly 3,500 metal workers. This number is seven times the number of general construction workers being employed in Richmond at the time which illustrates the importance of its iron exports.

Porches and fences in urban neighborhoods such as Jackson Ward, Church Hill, and Monroe Ward are particularly elaborate, often featuring ornate iron casts never replicated outside of Richmond. In some cases cast were made for a single residential or commercial application. Richmond is home to several notable instances of various styles of modernism. designed the Federal Reserve Building which dominates the downtown skyline.

The of has designed two buildings: the and the General Assembly Offices at the Eighth and Main Building. designed the . The -designed , a residence on a private island on the James River, remains Richmond's only true International Style home. The W.G. Harris residence in Richmond was designed by famed early modern architect and member of the , . The VCU , designed by , opened in 2018. Other notable architects to have worked in the city include Rick Mather, , and .

Many of Richmond's historic properties were documented in books and 1970s era black and white photographs by , an architectural historian and preservationist. Historic districts Richmond's City Code provides for the creation of old and historic districts so as to "recognize and protect the historic, architectural, cultural, and artistic heritage of the City." Pursuant to that authority, the city has designated 45 districts throughout the city.

The majority of these districts are also listed in the ("VLR") and the ("NRHP"). Fifteen of the districts represent broad sections of the city: Historic District City VLR NRHP (Grace St. to Idlewood Ave) 1992 1986 (Belvidere St. to First St.) 1985 1986 (32nd to 36th Sts. & Marshall St. to Chimborazo Park) 1987 2004 (Marshall to Cedar Sts. & Jefferson Ave. to N. 29th St.) 2007 1996 (Laburnum Ave.

to Westbrook Ave.) 1988 2005 (Belvidere to 2nd Sts. & Jackson to Marshall Sts.) 1987 1976 (Birch St. to Roseneath Rd.) 1971 1969 (21st to 32nd Sts. & Broad to Franklin Sts.) 1957 1969 (12th to 15th Sts. & Main to Canal/Dock Sts.) 1979 1971 (18th to 21st Sts. & Marshall to Franklin Sts.) 1977 1981 (19th to 22nd Sts.

& Riverside Dr. to Semmes Ave.) 2006 2013 (Madison to Jefferson Sts.) 1977 1977 (Birch to Harrison Sts.) 1990 1972 (Ryland St. to Boulevard) 1996 1997 (Adams to First Sts. & Grace to Main Sts.) 1987 1979 The remaining thirty districts are limited to an individual building or group of buildings throughout the city: Historic District VLR NRHP (15 South Fifth Street) 1971 (Lombardy Street and Brook Road) 1969 (211 East Franklin Street) 1971 (409 East Grace Street) 1979 (100-102 East Main Street) 1971 (1 West Main Street) 1972 (2 North Fifth Street) 1969 (116 South Third Street) 1971 (114 West Main Street) 1968 (818 East Marshall Street) 1969 (East Leigh and Twenty-Fifth Streets) 1971 (100-114 East Franklin Street) 1971 (110 West Franklin Street) 1972 William W.

Morien House (2226 West Main Street) (707 East Franklin Street) 1972 (1916 East Main Street) 1973 Pace House (100 West Franklin Street) (Northwest corner South Laurel Street and Idlewood Avenue) 1979 (815 East Grace Street) 1968 (800 East Grace Street) 1968 (9 North Fifth Street) 1971 (12-14 West Duval Street) 1996 (1520 West Main Street) 1984 Talavera (2315 West Grace Street) (1005-1015 East Clay Street) 1968 (4301 Sulgrave Road) 1989 (1200 East Clay Street) 1969 (215 South Wilton Road) 1975 Joseph P.

Winston House (103 East Grace Street) 1978 (3017 Williamsburg Avenue) 1974 Food Richmond has been recognized in recent years for being a " city", particularly for its modern renditions of traditional . The city also claims the invention of the , which includes , , and on . Richmond is also where, in 1935, canned beer was made commercially available for the first time.

The city operates one of the oldest municipal park systems in the country. The park system began when the city council voted in 1851 to acquire 7.5 acres (30,000 m 2), now known as . Today, Monroe Park sits adjacent to the campus and is one of more than 40 parks comprising a total of more than 1,500 acres (610 ha).

Several parks are located along the James River, and the James River Parks System offers bike trails, hiking and nature trails, and many scenic overlooks along the river's route through the city. The trails are used as part of the Xterra East Championship course for both the running and mountain biking portions of the off-road triathlon.

There are also parks on two major islands in the river: and Brown's Island. Belle Isle, at various former times a Powhatan fishing village, colonial-era horse race track, and Civil War prison camp, is the larger of the two, and contains many bike trails as well as a small cliff that is used for instruction.

One can walk the island and still see many of the remains of the Civil War prison camp, such as an arms storage room and a gun emplacement that was used to quell prisoner riots. Brown's Island is a smaller island and a popular venue of a large number of free outdoor concerts and festivals in the spring and summer, such as the weekly Friday Cheers concert series or the James River Beer and Seafood Festival.

Japanese Garden at Two other major parks in the city along the river are and , located near the Fan District. Byrd Park features a one-mile (1.6 km) running track, with exercise stops, a public , and a number of small lakes for small boats, as well as two monuments, Buddha house, and an amphitheatre.

Prominently featured in the park is the , built in 1926 as a memorial to those that died in the war. Maymont, located adjacent to Byrd Park, is a 100-acre (40 ha) estate with a museum, formal gardens, native wildlife exhibits, nature center, collection, and children's farm. Other parks in the city include , Forest Hill Park (former site of the Forest Hill Amusement Park), (site of the National Battlefield Headquarters), among others.

The James River itself through Richmond is renowned as one of the best in the country for urban white-water rafting/canoeing/kayaking. Several rafting companies offer complete services. There are also several easily accessed riverside areas within the city limits for rock-hopping, swimming, and picnicking. is located adjacent to the city in Henrico County. Founded in 1984, Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden is located on 80 acres (320,000 m 2) and features a glass conservatory, a rose garden, a healing garden, and an accessible-to-all children's garden.

The Garden is a public place for the display and scientific study of plants. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden is one of only two independent public botanical gardens in Virginia and is designated a state botanical garden. Several are also located near the city, including to the north, and to the east, near . Main article: Richmond is not home to any major league professional sports teams, but since 2013, the of the have held their in the city. There are also several sports in the city, including the of the (second tier of ) and the of the Class AA of (an affiliate of the ).

The Kickers began playing in Richmond in 1993, and currently play at . In 2018 the Richmond Kickers left the USL to become founders in Division 3 Soccer. The Squirrels opened their first season at on April 15, 2010.

From 1966 through 2008, the city was home to the , a AAA affiliate of the of , until the franchise relocated to . It is also the home to the , the city's first women's football team, founded in 2015 by . They are a part of the . Their game season begins in April, with preseason beginning in January. Another significant sports venue is the 6,000-seat , a multi-purpose arena named for tennis great and Richmond resident .

This facility hosts a variety of local sporting events, concerts, and other activities. As the home of Arthur Ashe, the sport of is also popular in Richmond, and in 2010, the named Richmond as the third "Best Tennis Town", behind , and .

Auto racing is also popular in the area. The (RR) has hosted races since 1953, as well as the Capital City 400 from 1962 − 1980. RIR also hosted IndyCar's Suntrust Indy Challenge from 2001 − 2009. Another track, , has operated since 1959 and sits just southwest of Richmond in . This .333-mile (0.536 km) oval short-track has become known as the "Toughest Track in the South" and "The Action Track", and features weekly stock car racing on Friday nights.

Southside Speedway has acted as the breeding grounds for many past NASCAR legends including , and , and claims to be the home track of NASCAR superstar . In 2015, Richmond hosted the , which had cyclists from 76 countries and an economic impact on the estimated to be $158.1 million, from both event staging and visitor spending. has also had recent success with the and the , both of the .

The Spiders' men's and women's teams play at and the Rams' men's and women's teams play at the . Main article: The , the local daily newspaper in Richmond with a Sunday circulation of 120,000, is owned by BH Media, a subsidiary of Warren Buffett's company.

is a standard weekly publication covering popular culture, arts, and entertainment, owned by Landmark Communications. is the city's only independent art music and culture publication, was once monthly, but is now issued quarterly. The and the Voice cover the news from an African-American perspective.

The Richmond metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. As of 2010 , the Richmond-Petersburg (DMA) is the 58th largest in the U.S. with 553,950 homes according to Nielsen Market Research.

The major network television affiliates are 6 (), 8 (), 12 (), 35 (), and 65 (). stations include 23 and 57. There are also a wide variety of radio stations in the Richmond area, catering to many different interests, including news, , and sports, as well as an eclectic mix of musical interests. Richmond enjoys a , , which features all volunteer community supported radio at all hours. Main article: Presidential Elections Results Year 15.1% 15,581 78.6% 81,259 6.4% 6,566 20.6% 20,050 77.8% 75,921 1.6% 1,598 20.0% 18,649 79.1% 73,623 0.9% 813 29.1% 21,637 70.2% 52,167 0.7% 521 30.7% 20,265 64.8% 42,717 4.5% 2,944 31.3% 20,993 63.0% 42,273 5.7% 3,812 30.5% 24,341 59.8% 47,642 9.7% 7,752 42.3% 31,586 56.4% 42,155 1.3% 995 43.7% 38,754 55.8% 49,408 0.5% 466 39.8% 34,629 55.1% 47,975 5.2% 4,502 44.7% 37,176 53.8% 44,687 1.5% 1,247 57.6% 46,244 41.2% 33,055 1.3% 1,003 39.6% 26,380 49.3% 32,857 11.2% 7,431 43.2% 27,196 56.7% 35,662 0.1% 32 60.4% 27,307 39.0% 17,642 0.6% 256 61.8% 27,367 24.3% 10,758 13.9% 6,166 60.3% 29,300 39.6% 19,235 0.2% 75 41.2% 14,549 46.6% 16,466 12.2% 4,286 27.8% 8,737 72.0% 22,584 0.2% 66 23.7% 6,031 76.0% 19,332 0.3% 76 19.2% 4,478 80.5% 18,784 0.4% 86 27.1% 5,602 70.8% 14,631 2.2% 448 51.3% 10,767 48.7% 10,213 19.4% 2,600 73.8% 9,904 6.8% 917 23.0% 4,515 75.9% 14,878 1.0% 202 14.6% 1,210 84.2% 6,987 1.3% 106 6.1% 405 85.0% 5,632 8.9% 586 Richmond city government consists of a with representatives from nine districts serving in a and oversight capacity, as well as a popularly elected, at-large mayor serving as head of the .

Citizens in each of the nine districts elect one council representative each to serve a four-year term. Beginning with the November 2008 election Council terms was lengthened to 4 years. The city council elects from among its members one member to serve as Council President and one to serve as Council Vice President. The city council meets at City Hall, located at 900 E.

Broad St., 2nd Floor, on the second and fourth Mondays of every month, except August. In 1977, a federal district court ruled in favor of who had claimed the council's existing election process — an at large voting system — was racially biased.

The verdict required the city to rebuild its council into nine distinct wards. Within the year the city council switched from majority white to majority black, reflecting the city's populace. This new city council elected Richmond's first black mayor, . In 1990 religion and politics intersected to impact the outcome of the Eighth District election in South Richmond.

With the endorsements of black power brokers, black clergy and the Richmond Crusade for Voters, South Richmond residents made history, electing Reverend A. Carl Prince to the Richmond City Council. As the first African American Baptist Minister elected to the Richmond City Council, Prince's election paved the way for a political paradigm shift in politics that persist today. Following Prince's election, Reverend Gwendolyn Hedgepeth and the Reverend Leonidas Young, former Richmond Mayor were elected to public office.

Prior to Prince's election black clergy made political endorsements and served as appointees to the Richmond School Board and other boards throughout the city. Today religion and politics continues to thrive in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Dwight C. Jones, a prominent Baptist pastor and former Chairman of the Richmond School Board and Member of the Virginia House of Delegates serves as Mayor of the City of Richmond. Richmond's government changed in 2004 from a form of government to an at-large, popularly elected Mayor.

In a landslide election, incumbent mayor Rudy McCollum was defeated by , who previously served Virginia as the first elected African American governor in the United States since . The current mayor of Richmond is who was elected in 2016. The mayor is not a part of the Richmond City Council. As of 2017 , the Richmond City Council consisted of: • Chris A. Hilbert, 3rd District (Northside), President of Council • Cynthia I Newbille, 7th District (East End) Vice-President of Council • Andreas D.

Addison, 1st District (West End) • Kimberly B. Gray, 2nd District (North Central) • Kristen Nye Larson, 4th District (Southwest) • Parker C. Agelasto, 5th District (Central) • Ellen F. Robertson, 6th District (Gateway) • Reva M. Trammell, 8th District (Southside) • Michael J. Jones 9th District (South Central) Main article: The city of Richmond operates 28 elementary schools, nine , and eight high schools, serving a total student population of 24,000 students. There is one Governor's School in the city − the .

In 2008, it was named as one of magazine's 18 "public elite" high schools, and in 2012, it was rated #16 of America's best high schools overall. Richmond's public school district also runs one of Virginia's four public , the Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts, which was founded in 2010.

As of 2008, there were 36 private schools serving grades one or higher in the city of Richmond. Some of these schools include: , St. Bridget School, , , , , , , , , , and Veritas School. Colleges and universities The Richmond area has many major institutions of higher education, including (public), (private), (private), (private), –Richmond (private, for-profit), (private), and the Baptist Theological Seminary in Richmond (BTSR—private).

Several community colleges are found in the metro area, including and (). In addition, there are several Technical Colleges in Richmond including ITT Technical Institute, and Centura College. There are several vocational colleges also, such as Fortis College and Bryant Stratton College. is located about 20 miles (32 km) south of Richmond, in the suburb of , just outside .

is located about 15 miles (24 km) north of Richmond, in the incorporated town of . Main article: The Greater Richmond area is served by the (: RIC, : KRIC), located in nearby , seven miles (11 km) southeast of Richmond and within an hour drive of historic . Richmond International is now served by nine airlines with over 200 daily flights providing non-stop service to major destination markets and connecting flights to destinations worldwide.

A record 3.3 million passengers used Richmond International Airport in 2006, a 13% increase over 2005. Richmond is a major hub for intercity company , with its terminal at 2910 N Boulevard. Multiple runs per day connect directly with Washington, D.C., New York, Raleigh, and elsewhere. Direct trips to New York take approximately 7.5 hours. Discount carrier also provides curbside service from outside of Main Street Station.

Direct service is available to Washington, D.C., , , , , and . Most other connections to Megabus served cities, such as New York, can be made from Washington, D.C.

Local and bus service in Richmond, , and counties is provided by the (GRTC). The GRTC, however, serves only small parts of the suburban counties.

The far West End (Innsbrook and Short Pump) and almost all of Chesterfield County have no public transportation despite dense housing, retail, and office development. According to a 2008 GRTC operations analysis report, a majority of GRTC riders utilize their services because they do not have an available alternative such as a private vehicle.

Richmond, and the surrounding metropolitan area, was granted a roughly $25 million grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2014 to support the system, which will run along Broad Street from Willow Lawn to Rocketts Landing, in the first phase of an improved public transportation hub for the region. The Richmond area also has two railroad stations served by . Each station receives regular service from north of Richmond including Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and New York.

The suburban is located on a major north-south freight line and receives all service to and from all points south including, , , , , and Florida. Richmond's only railway station located within the city limits, the historic , was renovated in 2004.

As of 2010, the station only receives trains headed to and from and due to track layout. As a result, the Staples Mill Road station receives more trains and serves more passengers overall.

Richmond also benefits from an excellent position in reference to the state's transportation network, lying at the junction of east-west and north-south , two of the most heavily traveled highways in the state, as well as along several major rail lines. Major highways • • () • • • • • • () • • • • • • • ( toll road) • • • () • • • • Utilities in the Richmond Metro area is provided by . The company, based in Richmond, is one of the nation's largest producers of energy, serving retail energy customers in nine states.

Electricity is provided in the Richmond area primarily by the and , as well as a coal-fired station in . These three plants provide a total of 4,453 of power. Several other natural gas plants provide extra power during times of peak demand. These include facilities in , and , and two plants in Richmond (Gravel Neck and Darbytown). Natural gas in the Richmond Metro area is provided by the city's Department of Public Utilities and also serves portions of and counties. Water is provided by the city's Department of Public Utilities, and is one of the largest water producers in Virginia, with a modern plant that can treat up to 132 million gallons of water a day from the .

The facility also provides water to the surrounding area through wholesale contracts with , , and counties. Overall, this results in a facility that provides water for approximately 500,000 people. The treatment plant and distribution system of water mains, pumping stations and storage facilities provide water to approximately 62,000 customers in the city.

There is also a wastewater treatment plant located on the south bank of the James River. This plant can treat up to 70 million gallons of water per day of sanitary sewage and stormwater before returning it to the river. The wastewater utility also operates and maintains 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of sanitary sewer and pumping stations, 38 miles (61 km) of intercepting sewer lines, and the Shockoe Retention Basin, a 44-million-gallon stormwater reservoir used during heavy rains.

• Annual records from the airport weather station that date back to 1948 are available on the web. • Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

• Official records for Richmond kept January 1887 to December 1910 at downtown, Chimborazo Park from January 1911 to December 1929, and at Richmond Int'l since January 1930. For more information, see • City Connection, Office of the Press Secretary to the Mayor. . January–March 2010 edition.

Retrieved February 8, 2010. • . . Archived from on September 11, 2013 . Retrieved January 31, 2008. • . . October 25, 2007 . Retrieved January 31, 2008. • ^ . State and County QuickFacts. . Retrieved April 9, 2016. • ^ Blackwell, John Reid. . Retrieved August 7, 2014. • City of Richmond. . Retrieved August 7, 2014. • Scott, Mary Wingfield (1941). (PDF). Richmond, Virginia: The Valentine Museum.

• Grafton, John. "." 2000, Courier Dover Publications, pp. 1–4. • "." . Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • . • Morrissey, Brendan. "." Published 1997, Osprey Publishing, pp. 14–16. • Peterson, Merrill D.; Vaughan, Robert C. . Published 1988, Cambridge University Press.

Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • Switala, William J. "." Published 2001, Stackpole Books. pp. 1–4. • . D. Appleton. 1872.

p. 196. • Bruce Levine, The Fall of the House of Dixie (New York, Random House 2014) pp. 269–70 • Time-Life Books. . Published 1983, Time-Life, Inc. • Levine pp. 271–72 • Levine, pp. 272–73 • Mike Wright, City Under Siege: Richmond in the Civil War (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995) • Levine pp. 275–78 • Levine pop. 279–82 • Dunaway, Wayland F. "." Published 1922, Columbia University. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • Smil, Vaclav. . Published 2005, Oxford University Press, p.

94. • Harwood, Jr., Herbert H. . Published 2003, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. vii. • "Transit Topics." Published November 27, 1949 and November 30, 1957, Virginia Transit Company, Richmond, Virginia.

• Gibson, Campbell. " at (July 10, 2007).." , June 1998. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • . U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from on August 6, 2012. • Felder, Deborah G. ", 1999, Citadel Press, p. 338. • Chesson, Michael B. "." Published 1981, Virginia State Library, p. 177. • Tyler-McGraw, Marie. "." Published 1994, UNC Press, p.

257. • "." . Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • "." 1975. . Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • Edds, Margaret; Little, Robert. "Why Richmond voted to Honor Arthur Ashe on Monument Avenue. The Final, Compelling Argument for Supporters: A Street Reserved for Confederate Generals had no Place in this City." . July 19, 1995.

• Staff Writer. "." . July 5, 1996. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. • "." . Retrieved on July 11, 2007. • "." . July 31, 2009.

Retrieved on January 20, 2010. [ ] • . . February 12, 2011 . Retrieved April 23, 2011. • "." . January 2006. Retrieved on July 12, 2007. • ^ . City of Richmond. September 27, 2007. Archived from on 2007-09-27. • (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on December 28, 2012 . Retrieved November 15, 2012. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () • ^ . . Archived from on May 22, 2013 . Retrieved September 7, 2016. • . United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.

2012. Archived from on February 27, 2014 . Retrieved February 20, 2017. • " (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on May 30, 2010 . Retrieved May 16, 2010. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title () . "." • . . Retrieved May 25, 2014. • "." . September 1, 2004. • Cite error: The named reference FAQs & HOLIDAY CLIMATOLOGY RICHMOND was invoked but never defined (see the ). • . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved September 13, 2016.

• . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved October 31, 2013. • . Retrieved June 9, 2017. • . United States Census Bureau. Archived from on May 12, 2015 . Retrieved January 2, 2014. • . University of Virginia Library . Retrieved January 2, 2014. • . United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 2, 2014. • (PDF). United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 2, 2014. • . . Archived from on September 11, 2013 . Retrieved May 14, 2011. • . The Disaster Center . Retrieved July 14, 2012.

• . . Archived from on February 18, 2012 . Retrieved July 14, 2012. • (PDF) . Retrieved July 14, 2012. • . . Retrieved November 1, 2011. • . Archived from on October 5, 2011 . Retrieved November 1, 2011. • (PDF). CQ Press . Retrieved July 14, 2012. • (PDF). CQ Press . Retrieved December 12, 2014. [ ] • Williams, Reed; Bowes, Mark (January 10, 2010). . . Archived from on February 4, 2013 . Retrieved July 14, 2012. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter () • . CLR Search.

Archived from on July 23, 2012 . Retrieved July 14, 2012. • Williams, Reed (December 7, 2008). . . Archived from on February 4, 2013 . Retrieved July 14, 2012. • . . Retrieved September 28, 2016. • Rockett, Ali (January 14, 2017). Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved January 15, 2017. • "." Second Presbyterian Church. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. • . Archived from on February 26, 2012 . Retrieved February 10, 2012.

• . Archived from on January 17, 2012 . Retrieved February 10, 2012. • . . Retrieved November 1, 2011. • . Bonay Kodesh | Reform Judaism | Chesterfield, Virginia . Retrieved March 17, 2016. • January 30, 2010, at the .. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. • . Retrieved June 29, 2012. • . Retrieved June 29, 2012. • . Retrieved June 29, 2012. • "." . February 2006. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. • . Retrieved June 29, 2012. • . Archived from on August 1, 2012 .

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• . Retrieved June 29, 2012. • . Archived from on February 5, 2012 . Retrieved February 10, 2012. • Parish Search School Search. . Archived from on January 17, 2012 . Retrieved February 10, 2012. • . Whitten Brothers . Retrieved July 8, 2016. • . . March 2005. December 1, 2007, at the .

• . • . Richmond Center Stage . Retrieved November 1, 2011. • Ruggieri, Melissa. "." . September 9, 2009. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. • Jones, Will. "." "". January 14, 2007. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. [ ] • Peifer, Karri. , , Richmond, August 25, 2014. Retrieved on August 25, 2014. • Andrews, Colman (August 18, 2014). . Departures . Retrieved August 30, 2015. • Cole, Jennifer.

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• Tina Grieg, , Washington Post (October 31, 2014). • Mark Robinson, , Richmond Mag (July 28, 2016). • . Beth Ahabah . Retrieved 2017-12-03. • Wayne Melton, , Style Weekly (October 16, 2002). • Style Weekly, March 27, 2012 • Alexa Nash, , Richmond Mag (July 17, 2015).

• Bill Lohmann, , Richmond Times-Dispatch (September 24, 2017). • Siona Peterous, , Commonwealth Times (September 28, 2017). • Macready, William, The diaries of William Charles Macready, 1833–1851, Volume 2, p.

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