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For other uses, see . Thunder Bay is a city in, and the seat of, , , Canada. It is the most populous municipality in with a population of 107,909 as of the , and the second most populous in after . Located on , the of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,621, and consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of and , the townships of , , , and , and the .
Map 052A06 Code FCWFX Website European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French outpost on the banks of the . It grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of and other products from , through the and the , to the east coast.
and played important roles in the city's economy. They have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "" based on medical research and education. Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Health Research Institute. The city takes its name from the immense at the head of , known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre (Bay of Thunder). The city is often referred to as the "Lakehead", or "Canadian Lakehead", because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border.
Main articles: and Before 1900 European settlement at Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts (1683, 1717) which were subsequently abandoned (see ).
In 1803, the Montreal-based established Fort William as its mid-continent entrepôt. The fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the , and Fort William was no longer needed. Fort William in 1865 By the 1850s, the began to take an interest in its western extremity. Discovery of in the of Michigan had prompted a national demand for locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior.
In 1849, French-speaking established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception (Mission of the Immaculate Conception) on the to the .
The Province of Canada negotiated the in 1850 with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior. As a result, an Indian reserve was set aside for them south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859–60, the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships (Neebing and Paipoonge) and the Town Plot of Fort William for European-Canadian settlement. Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William after construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the .
The work was directed by (see ). This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel named it Prince Arthur's Landing. It was renamed Port Arthur by the (CPR) in May 1883. The arrival of the CPR in 1875 sparked a long rivalry between the towns, which did not end until the amalgamation of 1970. Until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community.
The CPR, in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company, preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia River where the fur trade posts were. Provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and its seizure of a in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of after 1890 undermined the economy of Port Arthur. It had an economic depression, while Fort William thrived. 20th century CN Railway Station In the era of , Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth, based on improved access to markets via the and development of the western boom.
The CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The established facilities at Port Arthur. The began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, and the federal government began construction of the .
construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities incurred debt to grant bonuses to manufacturing industries. By 1914, the twin cities had modern infrastructures (sewers, safe water supply, street lighting, electric light, etc.) Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership.
As early as 1892, Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally-owned electric street railway. Both cities spurned to establish their own municipally-owned telephone systems in 1902. The boom came to an end in 1913–1914, aggravated by the outbreak of the . A war-time economy emerged with the making of munitions and shipbuilding.
Men from the cities joined the 52nd, 94th, and 141st Battalions of the . Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, and the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918. These were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the . The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur. It opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922.
By 1929, the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels. The forest products industry has played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy from the 1870s. Logs and lumber were shipped primarily to the United States. In 1917, the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur. It was followed by a mill at Fort William, in 1920. Eventually there were four mills operating. Manufacturing resumed in 1937 when the Canada Car and Foundry Company plant (opened during late World War I to produce naval ships and railcars) re-opened to build aircraft for the British.
Now run by , the plant has remained a mainstay of the post-war economy. It has produced forestry equipment and transportation equipment for urban transit systems, such as the and . Amalgamation On 1 January 1970, the City of Thunder Bay was formed through the merger of the cities of , , and the geographic townships of Neebing and McIntyre. Its name was the result of a held previously on 23 June 1969, to determine the new name of the amalgamated Fort William and Port Arthur.
Officials debated over the names to be put on the ballot, taking suggestions from residents including "Lakehead" and "The Lakehead". Predictably, , and "Thunder Bay" was the victor. The final tally was "Thunder Bay" with 15,870, "Lakehead" with 15,302, and "The Lakehead" with 8,377.
There was more controversy over the selection of a name for the amalgamated city than over whether to amalgamate. A vocal minority of the population preferred "The Lakehead". There was much discussion about other cities in the world that use the word "The" in their names. The area was often referred to as "The Lakehead" before and after amalgamation based on its geographic location.
It was seen as the "head" of shipping on the Great Lakes and the "rail head". The expansion of highways, beginning with the , and culminating with the opening of (linking Sault Ste Marie to Thunder Bay in 1960), has significantly diminished railway and shipping activity since the 1970s and 80s. Shipping on the was superseded by trucking on highways. Grain shipping on the Great Lakes to the East has declined substantially in favour of transport to Pacific Coast ports.
As a result, many grain elevators have been closed and demolished. The Kaministiquia River was abandoned by industry and shipping. Today Thunder Bay has become the regional services centre for with most provincial departments represented. , established through the lobbying of local businessmen and professionals, has proven to be a major asset. Another upper level institution is . The same businessmen and professionals who helped attract the university and college were the driving force(s) behind the political amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur in 1970.
Fort William as seen from the , December 2008 The city has an area of 328.48 square kilometres, which includes the former cities of Fort William and Port Arthur, as well as the [former] townships of Neebing and McIntyre.
The city reflects the settlement patterns of the 19th century and sprawls. Anchoring the west end of the city, the Fort William Town Plot, surveyed in 1859–60, was named West Fort William (or Westfort) in 1888 by the CPR. The land adjoining the lower Kaministiquia River became the residential and central business district of the town and city of Fort William. A large uninhabited area adjoining the Neebing and McIntyre rivers, which became known as Intercity, separated Fort William from the residential and central business district of Port Arthur.
At the extreme east of the city, a part of McIntyre Township was annexed to the town of Port Arthur in 1892, forming what later became known as the Current River area. The former Port Arthur section is more typical of the , with gently sloping hills and very thin soil lying on top of bedrock with many bare outcrops.
Thunder Bay, which gives the city its name, is about 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi) from the Port Arthur downtown to Thunder Cape at the tip of the . The former Fort William section occupies flat land along the Kaministiquia River. In the are two large islands: Mission Island and McKellar Island. Since 1970, the central business districts of Fort William and Port Arthur have suffered a serious decline.
Business and government relocated to new developments in the Intercity area. There has also been substantial residential growth in adjacent areas of the former Neebing and McIntyre townships. Climate The Thunder Bay area experiences a ( ) that is influenced by Lake Superior, with especially noticeable effects in the city's north end.
This results in cooler summer temperatures and warmer winter temperatures for an area extending inland as far as 16 km. The average daily temperatures range from 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) in July to −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) in January.
The average daily high in July is 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) and the average daily high in January is −8.0 °C (17.6 °F). On 10 January 1982, the local temperature in Thunder Bay dropped to −36.3 °C (−33.3 °F), with a wind speed of 54 km (34 mi) per hour for a wind chill temperature that dipped to −58 °C (−72.4 °F). As a result, it holds Ontario's record for coldest day with wind chill. The highest temperature ever recorded in Thunder Bay was 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) on 7 August 1983.
The coldest temperature ever recorded was −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) on 31 January 1996. The city is quite sunny, with an average of 2121 hours of bright sunshine each year, ranging from 268.1 hours in July to 86.2 hours in November, sunnier than any city in Canada located to the east of it. Winters are comparatively dry with the snowfall being very limited and temperatures much colder than in , on the side of the lake, where the climate is marked by heavy .
Thunder Bay has more of a continental climate in comparison. Climate data for , 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1877−present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high 9.2 15.4 22.9 29.7 38.7 43.1 46.2 45.4 41.2 32.3 21.7 11.8 46.2 Record high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 15.5 (59.9) 23.8 (74.8) 28.3 (82.9) 35.2 (95.4) 39.0 (102.2) 40.0 (104) 40.3 (104.5) 34.1 (93.4) 28.3 (82.9) 21.7 (71.1) 12.2 (54) 40.3 (104.5) Average high °C (°F) −8 (18) −5 (23) 0.6 (33.1) 9.2 (48.6) 16.2 (61.2) 20.6 (69.1) 24.3 (75.7) 23.3 (73.9) 17.7 (63.9) 9.9 (49.8) 1.4 (34.5) −5.5 (22.1) 8.7 (47.7) Daily mean °C (°F) −14.3 (6.3) −11.3 (11.7) −5.1 (22.8) 3.0 (37.4) 9.2 (48.6) 13.9 (57) 17.7 (63.9) 16.9 (62.4) 11.7 (53.1) 4.5 (40.1) −3.2 (26.2) −10.8 (12.6) 2.7 (36.9) Average low °C (°F) −20.6 (−5.1) −17.7 (0.1) −10.7 (12.7) −3.2 (26.2) 2.2 (36) 7.1 (44.8) 11.1 (52) 10.4 (50.7) 5.5 (41.9) −0.9 (30.4) −7.7 (18.1) −16 (3) −3.4 (25.9) Record low °C (°F) −43.2 (−45.8) −40.6 (−41.1) −36.7 (−34.1) −23.3 (−9.9) −8.9 (16) −3.9 (25) 0.0 (32) −1.1 (30) −8.3 (17.1) −15.6 (3.9) −30.6 (−23.1) −39.6 (−39.3) −43.2 (−45.8) Record low −58.2 −54.0 −42.7 −32.0 −16.2 −5.8 0.0 −4.0 −10.8 −20.6 −40.0 −51.0 −58.2 Average mm (inches) 26.3 (1.04) 20.5 (0.81) 31.3 (1.23) 52.9 (2.08) 67.0 (2.64) 83.5 (3.29) 87.0 (3.43) 89.5 (3.52) 73.1 (2.88) 64.3 (2.53) 53.1 (2.09) 35.2 (1.39) 683.7 (26.92) Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.39 (0.015) 2.9 (0.11) 16.1 (0.63) 36.6 (1.44) 66.3 (2.61) 83.5 (3.29) 87.0 (3.43) 89.5 (3.52) 72.0 (2.83) 55.3 (2.18) 30.7 (1.21) 6.2 (0.24) 546.5 (21.52) Average snowfall cm (inches) 36.5 (14.4) 21.2 (8.3) 18.2 (7.2) 10.3 (4.1) 1.0 (0.4) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.1 (0.4) 9.4 (3.7) 26.5 (10.4) 38.9 (15.3) 162.9 (64.1) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.0 9.5 10.3 9.5 11.5 13.8 12.9 12.3 13.7 12.9 12.1 12.4 142.9 Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.57 1.1 3.4 7.1 11.0 13.8 12.9 12.3 13.5 11.0 4.7 1.2 90.7 Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.9 9.6 8.4 4.0 0.50 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.27 3.4 9.7 13.9 62.5 Mean monthly 109.6 126.7 159.8 213.0 259.0 262.0 268.1 255.9 163.8 125.4 86.2 91.2 2,120.5 Percent 40.1 44.2 43.4 52.0 55.0 54.5 55.2 57.6 43.2 37.2 31.0 35.0 45.7 Source #1: Environment Canada Extremes 1877–1941 Source #2: CBC In 2012, Thunder Bay was the city with the highest per-capita rate of in Canada.
had previously held the distinction of having the highest rate from the years 2007 to 2011. In 2014, the per-capita rate of homicides in Thunder Bay was more than double the 2012 rate, and was over 2.5 times higher than the city with the next highest rate. However, between 2014 and 2015, the crime rate decreased by 6%.
This was the second highest decrease in any major Canadian city, behind only Moncton, New Brunswick. The Port of Thunder Bay, as seen from Hillcrest Park in June 2006.
Thunder Bay is composed of two formerly separate cities, and . Both still retain much of their distinct civic identities, reinforced by the buffering effect of the Intercity area between them. Port Arthur and Fort William each has its own and suburban areas. Some of the more well-known neighbourhoods include: the Bay and Algoma area, which has a large northern European population centred around the and the ; Simpson-Ogden and the East End, two of the oldest neighbourhoods in Fort William located north of ; Intercity, a large business district located between Fort William and Port Arthur; , the northernmost neighbourhood of Port Arthur; and Westfort, the oldest settlement in Thunder Bay.
Within city limits are some small rural communities, such as Vickers Heights and North McIntyre, which were located in the former townships of Neebing and McIntyre, respectively. Map of Thunder Bay's seven municipal wards The city is governed by a and twelve .
The mayor and five of the councillors are elected at large by the whole city. Seven councillors are elected for the seven wards: Current River Ward, McIntyre Ward, McKellar Ward, Neebing Ward, Northwood Ward, Red River Ward, and Westfort Ward. Thunder Bay is represented in the by , and , both members of the , and in the by of the and on the . City symbols A large formation of on the in which resembles a reclining giant has become a symbol of the city.
Sibley peninsula partially encloses the waters of Thunder Bay, and dominates the view of the lake from the northern section of the city (formerly Port Arthur). The Sleeping Giant also figures on the city's coat of arms and the city flag. The Coat of Arms of the City of Thunder Bay, which incorporates features from the coats of arms of Port Arthur and Fort William.
The of Thunder Bay, Ontario is a combination of the coats of arms of both Port Arthur and Fort William, with a unifying symbol—the Sleeping Giant—at the base of the arms. Corporate logo The city logo depicts a stylized , called Animikii, a statue of which is located on the city's . The slogan, Superior by Nature, is a double play on words reflecting the city's natural setting on Lake Superior. Thunder Bay's was created in 1972, when mayor wanted to promote the city by having a distinctive flag.
The city held a contest, which was won by Cliff Redden. The flag has a 1:2 ratio, and depicts a golden sky from the rising sun behind the Sleeping Giant, which sits in the blue waters of Lake Superior. The sun is represented by a red , a . Green and gold are Thunder Bay's city colours.
Sister cities Thunder Bay has five on three continents, which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria. • , since 1974 • , United States since 1977 • , United States since 1980 • , Japan since 2007 • , China, since 2017 Labour force Rate Thunder Bay Ontario Canada Employment 56.0% 59.9% 60.2% Unemployment 7.7% 7.4% 7.7% Participation 60.7% 64.7% 65.2% As of: Census 2016 As the largest city in Northwestern Ontario, Thunder Bay is the region's commercial, administrative and medical centre.
Many of the city's largest single employers are in the . The City of Thunder Bay, the , the and the Government of Ontario each employ over 1,500 people.
is the largest private employer, employing over 1,500 people. operates a 553,000 square feet (51,400 m 2) plant in Thunder Bay which vehicles and equipment, employing approximately 800 people. The plant was built by to build railway box cars in 1912, began building passenger railcar and transit cars from 1963 onwards Bombardier acquired the facility from in 1992, which had acquired it from Cancar in 1984.
Employment by Occupation, 2016 Occupation Thunder Bay Ontario Management 8.1% 11.3% Business, Finance and Administration 14.4% 16.1% Natural and Applied Sciences 6.2% 7.4% Health 10.0% 6.4% Education, Law, and Government 14.5% 11.9% Art, Culture, Recreation, and Sport 2.3% 3.2% Sales and Services 30.7% 23.4% Trades, Transport and Equipment Operators 15.0% 13.3% Natural Resources and Agriculture 1.9% 1.6% Manufacturing and Utilities 2.5% 5.2% Lack of innovation by traditional industries, such as forest products, combined with high labour costs have reduced the industrial base of Thunder Bay by close to 60%.
The grain trade has declined because of the loss of and the loss of European markets. The gradual transition from shipping by train and boat to shipping by truck, and the have ended Thunder Bay's privileged position as a in Canadian east–west freight-handling trade. As a result, the city has lost its traditional as a . However, in recent years shipments through the port of Thunder Bay have stabilized, and remains an important part of the .
In an effort to rejuvenate its economy, the city has been actively working to attract or "knowledge-based" industries, primarily in the fields of and . The city is home to the western campus of the , the first medical school to open in Canada in a generation.
The city also has a law school. Main article: Thunder Bay receives air, rail and shipping traffic due to its prime location along major continental transportation routes. Kasper Transportation provides coach service to both regional and national destinations, with the municipally owned providing 17 routes across the city's urban area.
The city is served by the , the by aircraft movements. The main highway through the city is /, a four-lane highway designated as the . The city is an important railway hub, served by both the and Railway. Passenger rail service to Thunder Bay ended on 15 January 1990, with the cancellation of 's southern transcontinental service. Harbour Thunder Bay has been a port since the days of the which maintained a schooner on Lake Superior.
The Port of Thunder Bay is the largest outbound on the , and the sixth largest port in Canada. The Thunder Bay Port Authority manages Keefer Terminal, built on a 320,000 square metre site on Lake Superior.
Medical centres and hospitals Thunder Bay has one major hospital, the . Other health care services include the St. Joseph's Care Group, which operates long term care centres such as the Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital, and Hogarth Riverview Manor. The has a campus at Lakehead University. The city is also home to a variety of smaller medical and dental clinics.
Year Pop. ±% 1881 1,965 — 1891 4,874 +148.0% 1901 7,211 +47.9% 27,719 +284.4% 1921 35,427 +27.8% 1931 46,095 +30.1% 1941 55,011 +19.3% 1951 66,108 +20.2% 1956 77,600 +17.4% 1961 92,490 +19.2% 1966 104,539 +13.0% 1971 108,411 +3.7% 1976 111,476 +2.8% 1981 112,486 +0.9% 1986 112,272 −0.2% 1991 113,946 +1.5% 113,662 −0.2% 109,016 −4.1% 109,140 +0.1% 108,359 −0.7% 107,909 −0.4% Sources: Selected Ethnic Origins, 2016 Ethnic origin Population 32,825 27,850 25,425 22,115 19,405 16,610 16,085 15,670 13,565 13,015 8,395 5,360 4,790 multiple responses included According to the , there were 107,909 people residing in Thunder Bay on 10 May 2016, of whom 48.8% were male and 51.2% were female.
Residents 19 years of age or younger accounted for approximately 19.9% of the population. People aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 25.0%, while those between 40 and 64 made up 35.1% of the population. The average age of a Thunder Bayer in May 2016 was 43.3, compared to the average of 41.0 for Canada as a whole. Between the censuses of and 2016, Thunder Bay's population decreased by 0.1%, compared to an increase of 4.6% for Ontario and 5.0% for Canada. The of the city of Thunder Bay averaged 328.6 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 14.8 for Ontario.
The total population has been stagnant or declining since amalgamation in 1970. A further 13,712 people lived in Thunder Bay's , which apart from Thunder Bay includes the of and , the of , , and , and the of .
Ethnicity According to the census, Thunder Bay was home to 13,565 people of Finnish descent, the highest concentration of people of Finnish origin in Canada. Thunder Bay has a large population representing 13.2% of the population, while represent 4% of the population. Mother tongue language (2016) Language Population Pct (%) English 90,135 86.1% Italian 2,815 2.7% French 2,405 2.3% Finnish 1,635 1.6% Ojibwe 920 0.9% Polish 830 0.8% Oji-Cree 660 0.7% Religion The states that 82.0 per cent of Thunder Bay residents belonged to a denomination: 39.8% of the total population was , 39.5% were , and 2.6% followed other Christian denominations, mostly .
Those who followed other made up less than 1% of the population, while the remaining 17.0% were non-religious or did not respond. Thunder Bay's main tourist attraction is , a reconstruction of the 's Fort William fur trade post as it was in 1815, which attracts 100,000 visitors annually. The marina in downtown Port Arthur, an area known as The Heart of the Harbour, draws visitors for its panoramic view of the and the presence of various water craft.
The marina also includes a lake walk, playground, harbour cruises, a children's museum, and a Chinese/Canadian restaurant. There are several small surface mines in the area, some of which allow visitors to search for their own crystals. A 2.74 m (9 ft) of is situated at the on the outskirts of the city near the place where he was forced to abandon his run.
Other tourists attractions are listed below. Main article: Thunder Bay has 38 , 3 , 8 , 2 , and an adult education facility. The city also has several other private for-profit colleges and tutoring programmes.
Post secondary institutions in Thunder Bay include and . The is the largest school board in the city, with 22 elementary schools, 4 secondary schools and a centre for adult studies. The is the second largest with 16 elementary schools, 3 middle schools and 2 high schools. operates one elementary and one high school in Thunder Bay, and an additional six schools throughout the Thunder Bay District.
A Persian, local to Thunder Bay The city of Thunder Bay was declared a "Cultural Capital of Canada" in 2003. Throughout the city are cultural centres representing the diverse population, such as the , Scandinavia House, the Italian Cultural Centre, the Polish Legion, and a wide variety of others.
Shags, a combination shower and stag held to celebrate the of a couple, and , a cinnamon bun pastry with pink icing, originated in the city. Thunder Bay is served by the , which has four branches.
Events in the city include , an LGBT pride parade held since 2010, and the annual . The arts Thunder Bay Historical Museum Thunder Bay is home to a variety of music and performance arts venues. The largest professional theatre is . Founded in 1971, it offers six stage plays each season and is located in the renovated Port Arthur Public School on Red River Road.
The , which seats 1500, is the primary venue for various types of entertainment. It is the home of the , which has 30 full-time and up to 20 extra musicians presenting a full range of classical music. New Music North is vital to the contemporary classical music scene in the city by offering intriguing and novel contemporary chamber music concerts.
The , established in 2005, is an independent film festival that features local, national, and international films with the theme of "Films for the People." The festival is held in early October at 314 Bay Street in the historic .
Thunder Bay is also home to the North of Superior Film Association (NOSFA). Established in 1992, the NOSFA features monthly screenings of international and Canadian films at the Cumberland Cinema Centre, with a spring film festival that attracts several thousand patrons. The Northwestern Ontario Writers Workshop (NOWW), founded in 1997, is the largest of several writing groups based in Thunder Bay.
Its mission is "to encourage and promote the development of the writers and literature of Northwestern Ontario." NOWW does this through a number of activities including regular workshops, monthly readings (summer excepted), an eWriter in Residence program, and other events designed to help and inspire writers in the region.
NOWW also hosts an annual LitFest in May which includes an awards presentation to the winners of its international annual writing contest.
Past contest judges include a Who's Who of Canadian writers such as , , , and . Museums and galleries The , which was founded in 1976, specializes in the works of First Nations artists, having a collection of national significance.
The Society, founded in 1908, presents local and traveling exhibitions and houses an impressive collection of artifacts, photographs, paintings, documents and maps in its archives. The City of Thunder bay also houses the Northwestern Ontario Sports Hall of Fame, and the Thunder Bay Military Museum (housed within the O'Kelley Armoury on Park Street). Thunder Bay has two recognized Federal Heritage buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings: • Ordnance Store (recognized 1997) • Park Street Armoury (recognized 1994) Both are part of HMCS Griffin.
Places of worship St. Andrews Presbyterian Church Thunder Bay has many places of worship supported by people of a variety of faiths, reflecting the cultural diversity of the population. A sample: • Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Church – . The original wooden church, built by Orthodox families in 1911/1912, was almost destroyed by fire in 1936.
The current church was built on the same site and opened in 1937. It has decorative gold domes that are characteristic of Ukrainian churches of the area, with Orthodox crosses atop the domes.
• Calvary Lutheran Church was established in 1958 as a mission congregation of the Minnesota North District (USA). • (LDS Church). The church has a family history library open to anyone to research their genealogy. • Elim Community Christian Centre. located in Current River area of the city which is now named Refreshing Waters Community Church. • Evangel Church. Contemporary Pentecostal church with a strong emphasis on children, youth and (with their convenient location next to ) young adults.
• First-Wesley United Church. The current Wesley United Church was preceded by a much smaller structure, Grace Methodist Church, which was built in 1891 and had a capacity of 100 people. The current Gothic 1,025 seat sanctuary was constructed in 1910. • Hilldale Church.
Offers services in both English and Finnish. The church has an intimate atmosphere and wonderful acoustics, and is frequently used for musical performances.
• Holy Trinity . Founded in 1918, the church moved to its present building in 1991. The church is active in providing non-profit housing for needy families. • Hope Christian Reformed Church. Services are recorded so that anyone with an internet connection may listen.
• Kitchitwa Kateri Anamewgamik. communal church geared to Native culture and teachings. A drop-in centre provides coffee and serves soup & bannock. • Lakehead Unitarian Fellowship. This community includes , , , , Non-theists, Humanist-, and . They welcome and celebrate the presence and participation of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons.
• Redwood Park Church member of the Christian Missionary Alliance. Runs an outreach at the old building on Edward street with a food bank and a clothing store. • Saalem Church. Offers services in both English and Finnish. • Shaarey Shomayim Congregation – . This egalitarian community has the only between Winnipeg and Toronto. • Shepherd of Israel Congregation – .
Affiliated with Evangelical movement. • . Roman Catholic Church. Founded in 1885, the new St. Agnes Church and Hall was dedicated on 6 June 1982. operates a food bank out of this church. • St Stephen the Martyr . Provides a food cupboard for the Current River area. • St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church. Founded in 1872, the current building was erected in 1884.
• – Roman Catholic. The old St. Patrick's Church was built in 1893. In 1963 it was replaced by the current cathedral on the same site. • St Paul's . Historic, stately parish built in the style. • St. Anthony's Parish - Roman Catholic. Located in The John-Jumbo area of Port Arthur. • Thunder Bay Masjid - Thunder Bay's proximity to the wilderness of the and the rolling hills and mountains of the Canadian Shield allow its residents to enjoy very active lifestyles.
The city has hosted several large sporting events including the Summer in 1981, the in 1995, the in 2003, and the in 2010 & 2017. Recreational facilities Thunder Bay enjoys many recreational facilities. The city operates fifteen neighbourhood community centres, which offer various sporting and fitness facilities as well as seasonal activities such as dances.
The city also operates six indoor ice rinks and 84 seasonal outdoor rinks, two indoor community pools and three seasonal outdoor pools as well as a portable pool and two maintained public beaches, several sheets, and three courses, among others. Listed below are some of the city's major facilities. Multi-use facilities • The • The • • Municipal ice rinks and indoor pools • Current River Arena • Delaney Arena • Grandview Arena • Neebing Arena • Port Arthur Arena • Thunder Bay Tournament Centre (2 ice surfaces) • Community Pool • Volunteer Community Pool Golf courses • Centennial Golf Course (9 holes) • Chapples Memorial Golf Course (18 Holes)(Municipal) • Dragon Hills Golf Course (9 holes) • Emerald Greens Golf Course (9 holes) • Fort William (18 Holes) • Municipal Golf Course (9 holes)(Municipal) (closed) • Northern Lights Golf Complex (9 holes par 3/9 holes regulation) • Strathcona Golf Course (18 holes)(Municipal) • Thunder Bay Country Club (9 holes) • Whitewater Golf Club (18 holes) Ski hills • Loch Lomond Ski Resort • Mount Baldy Ski Resort Cross-Country Skiing Facilities • Lappe Nordic Ski Centre • Kamview Nordic Centre Sports teams Club Sport League Venue C.J.
Sanders Fieldhouse Baseball Central C.J. Sanders Fieldhouse Thunder Bay Kings NAPHL Thunder Bay is also home to the National Development Centre – Thunder Bay, an elite cross-country ski team that attracts many of Canada's best Junior and U-23 skiers. Sport events • • • Main article: Print Thunder Bay has one daily newspaper, , which has a circulation of approximately 28,000 and has coverage of all of Northwestern Ontario. The Chronicle Journal publishes a free weekly called Spot every Thursday, focusing on entertainment.
There are two weekly newspapers: , a weekly newspaper operated by Dougall Media, and , a weekly newspaper. has a student newspaper called The Argus, which is published weekly during the school year. The city publishes a bi-monthly newsletter to citizens titled yourCity, which is also available online in a PDF format, by electronic subscription and RSS feed. Television Three English-language stations supply Thunder Bay with free digital television. Programming from the and networks is provided by a locally owned operation branded as , and the city receives on channel 9.
and are available only on cable and satellite in the area. The cable provider in Thunder Bay is ; although locally owned has been granted a license by the (CRTC) to compete in the cable TV market. The on Shaw Cable is branded as , and airs on cable channel 10.
TV channel 5, the affiliate in , , can be received in Thunder Bay with an outdoor roof antenna and a digital-capable television or receiver. Radio Thunder Bay is home to 12 radio stations, all of which broadcast on the band. There are four commercial radio stations based in the city — and , owned by , the parent company of Thunder Bay Television and Thunder Bay's Source, and and , owned by .
One additional station, , targets the Thunder Bay market from transmitters in and . The city receives as and as , at 88.3 FM and 101.7 FM respectively. The French is available as a repeater of Sudbury-based on 89.3 FM. Lakehead University operates a campus radio station, , at 102.7 FM, and broadcasts programming and is run by a local non-profit group.
Thunder Bay Information Radio CKSI-FM is broadcast 24/7 on 90.5 and is also the city's emergency radio station. • . Port of Thunder Bay . Retrieved December 3, 2018. • Smith, Jamie. "," TB News Watch (11 January 2016). Retrieved 10 January 2016. • , Thunder Bay City Council. Retrieved 2 June 2007. • , by-law 218-2003.
Retrieved 2 June 2007. • ^ . . Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08 . Retrieved 2013-04-25. • ^ . . Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08 . Retrieved 2013-04-25. • ^ . . Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08 . Retrieved 2013-04-25. • , The Transportation Sector. City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 30 November 2007. • . Thunder Bay A, Ontario: Environment Canada. 2011-01-19 . Retrieved 12 April 2012.
• ^ , City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 5 June 2007. • Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others. (1995). 7 February 2012 at the ., Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity, p. vii, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society • F.B. Scollie, "Falling into Line : How Prince Arthur's Landing Became Port Arthur," Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records, XIII (1985) 8–19. • , pp. 2. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 5 May 2013.
• Peel, Murray C. . The . Retrieved 3 December 2018. • ^ . Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. . Retrieved 29 September 2013. • . . Archived from on 6 June 2014 . Retrieved 3 June 2014. • ^ . . Archived from on 24 May 2008 . Retrieved 3 June 2014. • . 2011-10-31 . Retrieved 15 April 2016. • . 2011-10-31 .
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• . Retrieved 22 November 2014. • . CTV. 24 July 2012. • Comments, Posted: 12/19/2013 8:36 AM | (19 December 2013). . Winnipeg Free Press. • . TBNewswatch. 22 July 2015.
• (PDF). 2018-11-21. • , Municipal Government, Wards. Retrieved 4 June 2007 • ^ . Retrieved 4 June 2007. • 28 February 2018 at the ..
Retrieved 1 August 2014 • staff, Heather Peden, CJ. . The Chronicle-Journal . Retrieved 2018-10-19. • ^ City of Thunder Bay, Labour. Retrieved 24 March 2018 • . Retrieved 2 September 2007. • ^ , Northern Ontario Business (May 2006). Retrieved 4 September 2007. • (PDF). Bombardier . Retrieved December 3, 2018. • • , Port of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 20 December 2009. • 28 February 2014 at the ., TBRHSC.com (6 September 2006).
Retrieved 4 September 2007 • . Retrieved 2 September 2007. • ^ , Site Selection (November 2005). Retrieved 4 September 2007 • , Site Selection. Retrieved 27 February 2014 • . Transport Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • Canada Transportation Act, 1990. , SOR/89-488 S III 1. (2) (c). Retrieved 5 June 2007 • , official website. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • 27 February 2008 at the .. Retrieved 1 September 2007. For 1911: Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others.
(1995). 7 February 2012 at the .. , pp. 59. . • • ^ . . Retrieved 24 March 2016. • , 2016 Community Profile. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 24 March 2017. • , Thunder Bay CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 24 March 2018. • Statistics Canada: census • , Planning Your Visit – Beginnings. Retrieved 4 June 2007 • 8 August 2007 at the .
Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. Retrieved 4 August 2007. • . Retrieved 4 June 2007. • 6 July 2011 at the ., Shags. Thunder Bay Source.
Retrieved 11 June 2007. • . Retrieved 11 June 2007. • The Universal Cynic (26 June 2006) . Retrieved 11 June 2007. • . Retrieved 2 September 2007. • 3 March 2016 at the .. Retrieved 2 August 2008. • 16 July 2011 at the .. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • . Retrieved 2 September 2007. • . Retrieved 24 September 2018. • .
Retrieved 24 September 2018. • . Government of Canada - Parks Canada . Retrieved 3 December 2018. • . Government of Canada - Parks Canada . Retrieved 3 December 2018. • 6 July 2011 at the . Thunder Bay Community Information & Referral Center.
Retrieved 3 January 2009 • 29 February 2012 at the ., City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 3 January 2009 • TBSO. Retrieved 3 January 2009 • 13 December 2007 at the . – Outdoor Rinks. Retrieved January 2008 • Thunder Bay Telephone (2007) TBayTel 2007–2008 Directory, Pages 56 to 58. • and 27 September 2007 at the .. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • . Netnewsledger, 1 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
• 7 August 2011 at the .. Retrieved 8 June 2007 • , Thunder Bay. Retrieved 2 September 2007. • – CRTC. Retrieved 3 March 2009 Notes
MY SON'S FIRST HAIRCUT AT A BLACK BARBERSHOP