Best compensated dating in hong kong law

best compensated dating in hong kong law

News›Hong Kong›Law and Crime. dating. Compensated dating ring that earned HK$20 million in Hong Kong over last five years busted Twenty-three people were arrested in Hong Kong over the weekend when police busted a compensated dating ring that raked in HK$20 million over the last five years. Police said the ring had grown to comprise 100,000 members since 2012, with half of them male customers who could choose different membership levels affording varying online access with ladies who received compensation for going on dates through a website called “hklovely.”. The compensated-dating website “hklovely”, which is hosted by a server abroad, was still running late Sunday. Police were trying to liaise with Interpol to shut it down. Hong Kong News.

best compensated dating in hong kong law

This article presents public discourses on compensated dating of adolescent girls in Chinese society. Data are obtained from eight focus groups comprising 50 guardians at private, parochial, and public levels (i.e., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives).

Qualitative data are used to demonstrate how the guardians conceptualize and contextualize compensated dating as an outcome of the dynamics of societal features. Social features such as contemporary ideologies, Internet technology advancement, commercialization of human relationships, and ambiguity between “right” and “wrong” motivate the service providers and customers of compensated dating, and accelerate their convergence and weakened levels of guardianship in society.

This study is the first to connect the features of compensated dating of adolescent girls with recent societal changes using the routine activity approach. The findings confirm the application of the routine activity approach in the phenomenon of girls’ compensated dating, and also offer theoretical and practical implications.

... Recently, compensated dating (CD) has become a phenomenon of concern. Although CD is not identical to teen prostitution and commercial sexual exploitation ( Li, Cheung, Jia, Yu, & Nguyen, 2016), most CD cases have been found to encompass prostitution services, with exploitation by pimps and customers (Li, 2015). These three terms (CD, teen prostitution, and sexual exploitation) are therefore used interchangeably in this article. ... Compensated dating (CD) has emerged as a global concern since the 1990s.

Although considerable empirical research has been conducted to assess the patterns of and factors influencing CD, limited information is currently available on the attitudes of guardians (e.g., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives) in a Chinese community toward this issue.

Using survey data collected from 962 guardians, the current study analyzes the guardians’ perceptions of CD and their self-efficacy in handling this issue. Results show that these guardians perceive CD to be exploitative or harmful and that their self-efficacy in handling this issue was low. In particular, social workers appeared to be considerably tolerant for this phenomenon. Perceptions of CD were partly predictable by age, gender, and educational attainment, whereas self-efficacy was partly predictable by experience working with cases involving CD.

This study represents the first attempt to analyze the guardians’ views on a new form of child abuse. Moreover, this research has implications for social intervention, policy, and future research. The purpose of this study is to examine sexual perceptions and conflicts among Korean teenage girls who have been involved in ‘compensated dates,’ which is a form of sex work that may be temporarily under-taken by young girls or may lead on to prostitution.

I have collected data from 12 girls, using in-depth interviews, who had experienced sexual abuse, and economic deprivation. These girls were rather maladjusted and had been abandoned by their families and schools. Their involvement in compensated dates began out of economic necessity, as they had run away from home.

Sexual abuse was reportedly common for the majority of the respondents who had also suffered poverty and unhappy family lives. So these girls tended to seek compensated dates to overcome poverty. With poor education and skills, the girls viewed compensated dates as an easy strategy in the face of privation.

In addition, the consumer society encouraged them to become sexually promiscuous to earn money, in order to buy and own more and more goods. The sexual conflict and ambivalence experienced by them were outcomes of their sense of sexual subjectivity. They saw their bodies as resources that were exchangeable for money, but they did not realize the internalized oppression they endured.

They knew their bodies were a means of pleasure, but did not realize that sexual violence underlies it. The development of a stronger sense of self may resolve the conflict between the girls' curiosities and experiences concerning their bodies and sexuality.

This ground-breaking book examines the critical role that citizens play in guarding against crime. By focusing on the ways in which residents are able to capably guard their residential environments from crime, Reynald shows how local residents function (or fail to function) as effective crime controllers.

The studies contained herein are aimed at developing our theoretical, empirical and practical understanding of the function of the capable guardian as a critical, yet elusive actor in the crime event model. In lieu of utilizing secondary data sources for proxy measures, this book argues in favour of new, more direct measures of guardianship, employing direct methods of primary data collection in order to capture the action dimensions of capable guardianship, as well as various other environmental and contextual factors that affect it.

It features observations of guardianship in action and interviews with guardians to elucidate the factors that empower guardians to make them capable of crime control. Using hierarchical generalized linear modeling and the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods data, the authors examine whether different types of guardianship protect youth against exposure to violence in the neighborhood while controlling for situations where exposure is most likely to occur.

Protective family management practices and internal locus of control significantly reduce exposure to community violence. Contrary to expectations, however, neighborhood collective efficacy exerted no effect. The findings emphasize the importance of considering family management practices and individual characteristics as protective factors against harmful environments.

Further, guardianship is not restricted to external informal agents of control. This study examines the public discourse on financial fraud against older citizens in Chinese society using six focus groups with 45 stakeholders comprising social workers, police officers, caregivers, nurses, community representatives, and insurance and banking personnel.

This study uses qualitative data to describe the patterns and social features that facilitate this specific type of crime in Hong Kong. The narratives of the community stakeholders reveal several specific social features of Hong Kong that contribute to financial fraud against older persons, such as traditional Chinese values and ideologies, increasing cross-border activities, the Internet and technological advancements, and unfavourable economic situations.

The results of this study support the assumptions of the routine activity approach and have a number of theoretical and practical implications.

© The Author(s) 2015. Cohen and Felson's (1979) theory of “routine activities” is evaluated using 1972 and 1980 crime rate data for 676 American suburbs. Cross-sectional and change influences of criminal motivation (percent poor, percent unemployed, percent black, and percent youth), criminal opportunities (employment concentration and percent multiple housing) and guardianship (police employment, police expenditure, and female labor force nonparticipation) on suburban crime rates, 1980 and change in crime rates, 1972–80 are estimated using maximum likelihood (LISREL) techniques.

Consistent with the routine activities model, a multiplicative effect of the preconditions for crime on crime rates is also estimated. Motivation, opportunities, and guardianship are found to have direct and/or indirect additive effects on violent and/or property crime rates—supporting the “routine activities” model. A multiplicative effect of the preconditions of crime is found for property crime but not for violent crime rates. While scholars have identified a consistent link between deviant lifestyles and victimization, little research to date has examined how life-course trajectories and lifestyle factors can shape exposure to varied forms of victimization and, in particular, different types of sexual assault.

Drawing on interviews with 20 women with active night lives and direct observation of 33 nightlife events, this study employs a feminist pathways conceptual framework to examine how dispositional and lifestyle factors shaped the types of sexual assault reported. Findings indicate that while a number of factors associated with general sexual victimization were shared among those in the sample, the specific types of assault experienced were further conditioned by their individual trajectories in nightlife scenes, substance use histories, cultural taste preferences, as well as distinct aspects of the social contexts where victimization occurred.

More broadly, this study suggests that well-established risk factors associated with victimization impact women in different ways and exert their effects uniquely, through the intervention of culture. Over the last few decades, there has been a marked increase in media and debate surrounding a specific group of offences in modern Democratic nations which bear the brunt of the label ‘crimes against morality’.

Included within this group are offences related to prostitution and pornography, homosexuality and incest and child sexual abuse. This book examines the nexus between sex, crime and morality from a theoretical perspective. This is the first academic text to offer an examination and analysis of the philosophical underpinnings of sex-related crimes and social attitudes towards them and the historical, anthropological and moral reasons for differentiating these crimes in contemporary western culture.

The book is divided into three sections corresponding to three theoretical frameworks: Part 1 examines the moral temporality of sex and taboo as a foundation for legislation governing sex crimes Part 2 focuses on the geography of sex and deviance, specifically notions of public morality and the public private divide Part 3 examines the moral economy of sex and harm, including the social construction of harm.

Sex, Crime and Morality will be key reading for students of criminology, criminal justice, gender studies and ethics, and will also be of interest to justice professionals. Compensated dating (CD) has emerged as a global concern since the 1990s. Although considerable empirical research has been conducted to assess the patterns of and factors influencing CD, limited information is currently available on the attitudes of guardians (e.g., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives) in a Chinese community toward this issue.

Using survey data collected from 962 guardians, the current study analyzes the guardians’ perceptions of CD and their self-efficacy in handling this issue. Results show that these guardians perceive CD to be exploitative or harmful and that their self-efficacy in handling this issue was low. In particular, social workers appeared to be considerably tolerant for this phenomenon.

Perceptions of CD were partly predictable by age, gender, and educational attainment, whereas self-efficacy was partly predictable by experience working with cases involving CD. This study represents the first attempt to analyze the guardians’ views on a new form of child abuse. Moreover, this research has implications for social intervention, policy, and future research. This study examines the public discourse on financial fraud against older citizens in Chinese society using six focus groups with 45 stakeholders comprising social workers, police officers, caregivers, nurses, community representatives, and insurance and banking personnel.

This study uses qualitative data to describe the patterns and social features that facilitate this specific type of crime in Hong Kong. The narratives of the community stakeholders reveal several specific social features of Hong Kong that contribute to financial fraud against older persons, such as traditional Chinese values and ideologies, increasing cross-border activities, the Internet and technological advancements, and unfavourable economic situations.

The results of this study support the assumptions of the routine activity approach and have a number of theoretical and practical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Although numerous studies have examined the prevalence, contributing factors, and consequences of compensated dating (CD) among young people, few empirical studies have investigated the process of engaging in CD.

This article intends to fill this research gap through semi-structured interviews with 30 young people who have experience in CD in Hong Kong. The current study provides a step-by-step account of the involvement of young people in this illegal/immoral activity from a crime script perspective.

Twelve decision-making points in four crime commission stages are identified in this study. The findings of the study will not only advance conceptual understanding of the choice, script, and dynamics of young people's path to CD but also provide suggestions for formulating stage-specific measures for situational crime prevention.

This empirical study is the first to investigate the process of this specific emerging offense in the Chinese community. The guardianship in action (GIA) instrument was originally developed by Reynald (Crime Prev Community Saf 11(1):1–20, 2009) as a tool for measuring guardianship potential at residential properties.

This research determined that guardianship intensity at the property level can be measured through direct observation, and the measurement of guardianship intensity is enhanced when measures of aspects of the physical and social environment are included. Guardianship in action has been examined previously in major metropolitan areas and suburban contexts.

Research has not examined the utility of the guardianship in action instrument or the related guardianship construct in rural areas, small cities and towns, or smaller non-metropolitan cities. The current study is designed to examine guardianship in action in a smaller, non-metropolitan city—Waco, Texas. Implications for research, theory, and policy are discussed.


best compensated dating in hong kong law

best compensated dating in hong kong law - Compensated Dating In Hong Kong Essay


best compensated dating in hong kong law

Chu, S. C. [朱世君]. (2014). Compensated dating in Hong Kong. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5204906 Abstract This thesis is an empirical study on the phenomenon of compensated dating [hereafter known as CD] in Hong Kong. It examines the lived experiences of CD participants and their self-understandings of their identities and behaviors.

Drawing from formal in-depth interviews with 30 male clients and 12 young women who provided CD, cyber ethnography of a major online CD forum, informal conversations with CD participants and offline participant observations of various types of non-commercial and non-sexual social gatherings amongst groups of CD participants from the period between March 2010 and December 2012, this thesis examines why and how individuals come to be involved in CD, how they form intimacies in the context of CD and the nature of these intimacies.

In the process, it illuminates the emerging social phenomenon of CD in light of the transformation of intimacy, plastic sexuality, new female and male biographies, gender relationships, the advance of information technology, and various social changes in an increasing fragmented and risky society as we enter into the world of late modernity. This thesis argues that CD participants perceive CD as a space for practicing plastic sexuality rather than a form of prostitution.

The fact that sex does not necessarily happen in CD, the dynamic interactions amongst CD participants, and the changes of conventional sexual script from a marital, reproductive and monogamous one to a non-marital, non-reproductive, recreational, non-monogamous and even emotionally indifferent one make the CD script more like the mainstream sexual script in late modernity and less like the traditional commercial sexual script.

The resemblance between the CD script and modern intimacy serves as a major rationale for CD participants to justify their CD behaviors. This thesis also argues that male clients of CD desire more than just bounded authenticity and that CD relationship is a complex and dynamic interpersonal relationship rather than a simple and static seller-buyer relationship because more often than not, CD participants extend their relationships beyond a bounded, commercial sexual context to an unbounded, non-commercial social context.

This thesis examines the factors that facilitate CD participants to transform an impersonal and bounded commercial relationship to a genuine and unbounded interpersonal and/or romantic relationship. This thesis concludes that although CD relationships may be ephemeral, precarious and founded on economic elements, so too are many conventional relationships in modern society. There is an increasing intellectual tension to demarcate between CD relations and conventional intimate relations because while the former underscores the romantic and reciprocal qualities of the later, the later also reflects the recreational, economic and unstable elements of the former.

Although plastic sexuality, the transformation of intimacy and various consequences of modernity are not in themselves the causes of the emergence of CD, they do create the contexts of an environment that is favorable to the development and growth of the CD phenomenon. Degree Doctor of Philosophy Subject Dating (Social customs) - China - Hong Kong Dept/Program Sociology Persistent Identifier HKU Library Item ID b5204906 DC Field Value Language dc.contributor.author Chu, Sai-kwan, Cassini - dc.contributor.author 朱世君 - dc.date.accessioned 2014-07-10T04:10:18Z - dc.date.available 2014-07-10T04:10:18Z - dc.date.issued 2014 - dc.identifier.citation Chu, S.

C. [朱世君]. (2014). Compensated dating in Hong Kong. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5204906 - dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10722/198823 - dc.description.abstract This thesis is an empirical study on the phenomenon of compensated dating [hereafter known as CD] in Hong Kong. It examines the lived experiences of CD participants and their self-understandings of their identities and behaviors.

Drawing from formal in-depth interviews with 30 male clients and 12 young women who provided CD, cyber ethnography of a major online CD forum, informal conversations with CD participants and offline participant observations of various types of non-commercial and non-sexual social gatherings amongst groups of CD participants from the period between March 2010 and December 2012, this thesis examines why and how individuals come to be involved in CD, how they form intimacies in the context of CD and the nature of these intimacies.

In the process, it illuminates the emerging social phenomenon of CD in light of the transformation of intimacy, plastic sexuality, new female and male biographies, gender relationships, the advance of information technology, and various social changes in an increasing fragmented and risky society as we enter into the world of late modernity.

This thesis argues that CD participants perceive CD as a space for practicing plastic sexuality rather than a form of prostitution. The fact that sex does not necessarily happen in CD, the dynamic interactions amongst CD participants, and the changes of conventional sexual script from a marital, reproductive and monogamous one to a non-marital, non-reproductive, recreational, non-monogamous and even emotionally indifferent one make the CD script more like the mainstream sexual script in late modernity and less like the traditional commercial sexual script.

The resemblance between the CD script and modern intimacy serves as a major rationale for CD participants to justify their CD behaviors. This thesis also argues that male clients of CD desire more than just bounded authenticity and that CD relationship is a complex and dynamic interpersonal relationship rather than a simple and static seller-buyer relationship because more often than not, CD participants extend their relationships beyond a bounded, commercial sexual context to an unbounded, non-commercial social context.

This thesis examines the factors that facilitate CD participants to transform an impersonal and bounded commercial relationship to a genuine and unbounded interpersonal and/or romantic relationship. This thesis concludes that although CD relationships may be ephemeral, precarious and founded on economic elements, so too are many conventional relationships in modern society.

There is an increasing intellectual tension to demarcate between CD relations and conventional intimate relations because while the former underscores the romantic and reciprocal qualities of the later, the later also reflects the recreational, economic and unstable elements of the former.

Although plastic sexuality, the transformation of intimacy and various consequences of modernity are not in themselves the causes of the emergence of CD, they do create the contexts of an environment that is favorable to the development and growth of the CD phenomenon. - dc.language eng - dc.publisher The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) - dc.relation.ispartof HKU Theses Online (HKUTO) - dc.rights This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

- dc.rights The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works. - dc.subject.lcsh Dating (Social customs) - China - Hong Kong - dc.title Compensated dating in Hong Kong - dc.type PG_Thesis - dc.identifier.hkul b5204906 - dc.description.thesisname Doctor of Philosophy - dc.description.thesislevel Doctoral - dc.description.thesisdiscipline Sociology - dc.description.nature published_or_final_version - dc.identifier.doi 10.5353/th_b5204906 -


best compensated dating in hong kong law

1160 words - 5 pages Introduction Compensated dating (CD) – a relationship with mainly financial support, in Hong Kong seems to be sprouting up among adolescent. CD is similar to juvenile prostitution (JP) but is not exactly the same. It is not necessarily involving sexual intercourse but a wide variety of nonsexual and sexual services are involved in CD. A study shown that even the prevalent rate of CD in HK was lower than those shown in Western and Asian counterparts, it was alarming.

Furthermore, there is a risk that CD may turn out to become JP since most adolescent who engaged in CD used the term CD to make them a disparate sense from the stigmatic term prostitute (Lee & Shek, 2013). Although they thought that they could choose the kind of service they provide, reality is not always true as expected.

Therefore, health education among early adolescents is of great urgency, topics on both sex and money literacy in order to reach the final sake for lowering the prevalent rate of CD.

Findings There are several important findings from the study that cannot be neglected. First and the most affective factor, positive youth development (PYD) and perceived family functioning (i.e. mutuality, harmony, communication), academic and school competence were negatively related to adolescent’s CD behavior.

Low economic status in the family, domestic violence and abusive experience, chaotic and ineffective parenting styles are example of primary risk factors. Nevertheless, parents’ marital status influence on the engagement in CD is more significant than that by family economic background.

There is a big different between separated but not remarried and first marriage. In other words, better mutual support, love, and concern among family members and higher levels of PYD can lower the level of CD. Second, the study found that males reported a higher percentage of CD than females, especially for those whose family received public financial assistance. Studies were used to focusing females on sex problem but ignore males as this is not commonly expected in Chinese society.

Third, problem behaviours, such as substance abuse, are just mildly related to CD (Lee & Shek, 2013). Impacts Physical Early adolescent may come across violence in CD and they may not seek for help as they do not want others know what they are doing.

Risky sexual behavior may cause venereal disease or irrecoverable damage their reproductive systems which are still developing. Psychosocial Hong Kong is an international modern city, but is deeply affected by traditional Chinese culture, sex related issues are often a taboo. Society seems CD as an improper transaction, even it is different from prostitute, it is a “dirty” way to earn money.

Early adolescent who engaged in CD may avoid letting parents and schoolmates to notice their “job”, this may develop stress and isolation from social circle by themselves.

It would be more serious if CD is known by others,... 1573 words - 6 pages IntroductionAs British colonial rule in Hong Kong has come an end, the "new" local government finds itself in a political environment that is unprecedentedly turbulent. The upholding of "one country two system" has resumed the sovereignty over the territory and the involvements of China in Hong Kong domestic affairs have inevitably increase so as the dampening effect in democratization.

However the "new" government led by Mr. Tung has not yet 826 words - 3 pages . There are numbers of immigration policies currently adopted by the immigration department of Hong Kong, Quality Migrant Admission Scheme (QMAS) and Capital Investment Entrant Scheme (CIES) are the most famous among all.To start with, Quality Migrant Admission Scheme refers to acquire of diverse talented or high technique person to stay and live in Hong Kong as a local citizen, in order to raise the international competitiveness of her.

People 1310 words - 5 pages POPULAR NOMINATION IN HONG KONG 8Popular Nomination in Hong KongWong Ho LongHang Seng Management CollegeAuthor NoteInformative/Argumentative essay written by S136688 Wong Ho Long as ENG2010 Assignment Number 2 for Peter James Ronald Brokenshire.Popular Nomination in Hong KongRecently, the Universal Suffrage is being discussed by the Hongkongers.

One of the controversial issue is the popular nomination for the election of Chief Executive. This 628 words - 3 pages Class: 5D Name: Cheung Ching Him, Anson Number: (7) Air pollution in Hong Kong 'I durst not laugh for fear of opening my lips and receiving the bad air,' wrote William Shakespeare. Many people may feel the same the way when they are walking in Hong Kong streets. Air pollution in Hong Kong is often so bad that it is impossible to see across Victoria Harbour due to all the haze and smog.

In this essay, I am writing to raise several concerns about 611 words - 2 pages consumers resulting in unnecessary inflation.Increase unemployment rate of low-skill workersUndermine the competitiveness of companies operating in Honk Kong because of the increase in labour costs.Due to minimum wage law, the situation of Hong Kong society has been improved after the implementation of law, such as decreasing number of Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA) beneficiaries, narrowing the wealth gap and enhancing social 1809 words - 7 pages increases mental stress and lowering the self-esteem.

In this report, recent structural unemployment situation of Hong Kong is first discussed, then government policies and their effectiveness are focused. 2. Topic Definition/ Justification Structural unemployment represents a type of unemployment happens when industrial transformation takes place.

Development or changes of policies and economic structure will also lead to structural 2186 words - 9 pages 1. Introduction Made in Hong Kong (1997) is one of the independent films directed by the “grassroots director” Fruit Chan on low budget production. The cost of production was kept low by utilizing the leftover film reels and amateur actors such as Sam Lee Chan-Sam who has been awarded best New Artist in the 17th Annual Hong Kong Films Awards and nominated Best Actor in 35th Annual Golden Horse Awards.

Made in Hong Kong is very much a vernacular 1092 words - 4 pages The education system problems in Hong KongFrom 1841 to 1997, Hong Kong education was closely modeled on the system that was found in the UK, at that time Hong Kong was administered by Britain. On 1st July 1997, China got back the former UK colony. Since then, the education system had experienced a lot of changes. For example, the Hong Kong government has changed the nine years compulsory and free schooling system to 12 years education.

Nowadays 3056 words - 12 pages Disneyland in Hong Kong- Good or Bad? The aim of this essay is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages in having Disneyland coming into Hong Kong.

Disneyland is a famous theme part, with outlets all around the world, including Japan, America and France. And now, Disney decided that the next theme part it is going to locate itself is Hong Kong- is how beneficial will it be to Hong Kong?

The diagram on the left shows the proposed location of 1891 words - 8 pages James Watson’s McDonald’s in Hong Kong is a textbook example of globalization. According to Webster’s dictionary, globalization is defined as “worldwide integration and development”.

In McDonald’s in Hong Kong, Watson discusses a well-known and successful American fast food chain migrating over seas and embedding itself in the Hong Kong culture. Although Hong Kong was already recognized as an extremely transnational civilization, there were 3409 words - 14 pages Since the handover of Hong Kong from being a British colony back to a special administrative region of China in 1997, it has suffered from a series of political turmoil in which the executive found great difficulties in exerting public support on its rule while failing to build a cooperative relationship with the legislature.

The existing political system is criticised greatly by the society for its outdated design that fails to cope with the 1807 words - 7 pages Introduction In the last decade, the issue of homosexuality has been widely discussed and known in Hong Kong. People have more opportunities to approach the word `homosexuality' in their daily life through literatures, movies and occasional news revealing celebrities' homosexual behaviors.

Simultaneously there has also been significant growth in commercial venues such as restaurants and bars, catering to gays and lesbians. In short, the 2547 words - 10 pages Table of Contents Page Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 Overall situation around the world------------------------------------------------------------------3 Situation in Hong Kong----------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Main issue addressed 1303 words - 5 pages transport as its network reaches every corner of Hong Kong.

Apart from this, the monorail is fast and has a large carrying capacity, so there is not reason for not using it.Before I knew it, I am already heading towards the tree-planting site. This campaign has been going on for more than one year already, and we are now beginning to see the fruit of our hard work. I could never imagine Central becoming so ¡¥green¡¦ in the 706 words - 3 pages 1. Introduction: In Hong Kong, the problem of obesity is quite serious. According to the Population Health Survey 2003/2004 commissioned by The Department of Health, around 18% of the population aged 15 and above were overweight and around a quarter of the population were obese.

[1] In spite of this, in order to tackle this problem effectively, the causes of the problem will be evaluated and the different preventative measures will be suggested


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