Best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

Chinese women are good partners for dating and long time relationship. They are attractive, smart and loyal. However, finding a Chinese love seems to be a big challenge for those who live far away from China, but it’s actually relatively easy today. With the boom of online dating services, many Chinese ladies resort to the internet and hope find their love online. There are great chances that you will find your ideal Chinese partners online ChinaLoveCupid is the biggest English language dating site which focuses on connecting Chinese ladies with expats in China or foreigners outside of the country. Today more and more Chinese are open-minded and are interested in the western way of life. They hope to learn about the outside world, make friends or even marry foreigners.

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

Today, with the development of China’s economy and the popularity of western culture in China, many Chinese women, especially those in big cities, tend to hope to live better life and look for a foreign love. Chinese women are good partners for dating and long time relationship. They are attractive, smart and loyal. However, finding a Chinese love seems to be a big challenge for those who live far away from China, but it’s actually relatively easy today.

With the boom of online dating services, many Chinese ladies resort to the internet and hope find their love online. There are great chances that you will find your ideal Chinese partners online. If you want to find a Chinese love, you should stay away from general dating sites like or eHarmony and use those sites which cater specifically to Chinese women who are looking for Western men. Here we make a list of the top 6 best Chinese dating sites with reviews, check it out and find your Chinese love now.

1. ChinaLoveCupid is the biggest English language dating site which focuses on connecting Chinese ladies with expats in China or foreigners outside of the country. Today more and more Chinese are open-minded and are interested in the western way of life. They hope to learn about the outside world, make friends or even marry foreigners. When looking through the profiles on ChinaLoveCupid you will find that many Chinese girls have good English skills and can communicate with English speakers easily.

Many of them are probably well-educated attractive working women in big cities. They are more open to online dating and hope to find exotic foreign love. The site is easy to use and signing up can be very quick. But remember that a detailed profile will greatly improve your rate of getting response. So it is worth spending some effort to complete your profiles. The site has many useful functions such as sending a “like”, sending messages and search function.

It also provides an automatic langauge translation service. Signing up is free, you can have its basic functions, but if you are serious about dating and hope to find your love soon. You’d better update to a paid member with just a few bucks. The best price is the one year package for as low as $10 each month and there are no recurring fees here.

In conclusion, is the best dating site for foreigners to find Chinese girls. You can have very good experience with a really reasonable price. It is the best option if you do not actually read and write Chinese. Click on the button below to check out ChinaLoveCupid for yourself… 2. is a trustworthy dating site that I strongly recommend. It is a completely open and spam-free site.

Singing up is free and you can browse overwhelming amount of ladies. A man must become a paying member to contact female members (Most of the women have free accounts) and you can read unlimited emails from unlimited ladies without extra charges, video chat with girls and know exactly who are really talking with.

The site provides automatic translations for letters and live chats. I really suggest you chat with the women via video as you can learn more about the girls that words can not say and decide if she is the one for you. If you are sincere and make the women comfortable, usually you will soon get their personal contacts such as QQ or Skype account. If you are seeking an honest Chinese dating site, I suggest you check this site out. The site has very strict screening policy, they will remove the scammers immediately and put it on their jail page.

They also offer blogs and dating tips written by founders or members to help those with different backgrounds. In conclusion, we recommend you have a think about ChinaLoveMatch.

It is a legitimate Chinese dating site that you should check out. Click on the button below and check out the profiles of thousands of beautiful Chinese women for yourself…! 3. is a popular dating site which connects to singles in the west.

It offers multi language versions with a wide range of cool features It is free to sign up and a free membership allows you to send and receive e-mail from other members, but at least one of both must be paid members.

Since most female members are free members, you’d better upgrade to a paid member which allows to contact all (free and paying) members and you can use instant messaging chat and live video chat.

Asiandating has a large member pool. At present there are more than 2 million members on its platform, which gives you a lot of choices and improve your potential success rates.There are so many people from different backgrounds and regions, so communication is a problem for those with different languages, but no worry, its internal translation service can keep your mind at rest. With a very nice free membership option, you can have fun and enough features to explore the site free and then decide if you will become a paying member.

With so high member numbers, you can talk to as many free and paying members as you want. Over all, Asian Dating is a fun and the best place to find your dates from Asia and around the world. Click on the button below to check out Asian Dating for yourself… 4. is one of the biggest online dating sites created for the Asian community especially for Chinese people and foreigners. The site has two language versions – Chinese and English. The site has more than six million members across the world, most of its members are from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, United States, Australia and Canada.

It is free to join and you can search for singles living in your area immediately, you can check others profiles, but if you want to communicate with other members, you need to upgrade to a paying membership, which allows you to use a variety of communication tools such as email and chat rooms and even video messaging.

The staff of the site will review all new members’ profiles and delete those fake profiles. They will also remove profiles inactive for six months from their system. This makes sure that you will speak to the real person instead of fake members. The membership fee is also favorable with just $5.99/month for 12 months package. Considering it has so many members there, it is worth giving it a try.

The following two dating dating sites are all in just Chinese language, go ahead if you know some Chinese language. 5. is China’s biggest online dating site, which provides serious dating service for singles in mainland China, , Macao, Taiwan and other countries and regions in the world.

Jiayuan has more than 100 million registered users and the majority of its members are highly educated white-collars in cities. It uses manual review to maintain the quality of all members to ensure your dating a pleasant journey.

It also holds about 1,000 offline dating events in more than 100 cities in mainland China. 6. is China’s first real-name dating service provider. It features for its unique “soul matching” model in China.

There are over 90 million registered users who are looking for their life partner on Baihe. It is the second largest dating site in Mainland China. You can try if you know some Chinese language. Tips of Dating Chinese Women 1. Give more details about your self and upload some lifestyle photos. A detailed profile with some photos will make female members feel that you are serious and sincere about looking for a Chinese wife.

2. No matter which Chinese dating site you are using, it is important to be aware scammers. Though unlike Thai and dating sites, there are less scammers on Chinese dating sites, you still should be careful about it. Stay away with the members who just a one or two attractive photos, there is a great chance that they are scammers.

Remember that never send money to your dating partners no matter how attractive she is. 3. Having a relationship with a Chinese woman can be complex, especially you know little about Chinese culture and can not speak Mandarin. But with some simple search and a little bit of knowledge and preparation, you may have a expecting romance and even find your true love! 4. A live video chat is a good way to learn about your dating partner soon. It makes sure you are talking to the real person and help you learn more about the lady soon.

I have looked at a few dating sites lately. So far the worst rip off phony site is $7 to send an EM to the girl you are interested in, $7 to look at a pic of her besides the one on her site, 99% of all these women are gorgeous and dress amazing, it will cost you like $150 to meet the women of your interest if she allows it, anyway stay away from them • You are right about CHN LOVE which is now Asiame.It is a scam.In less than a week I spent over $200 sending and reading emails to and from the ladies there.Stay away from sites that make you buy credit’s to talk to your lady of interest.One lady I talked to,I also found on another site like chnlove,com where you had to buy credit’s.I was just browsing the ladies when I came across that same girl,but here she had a different name and she was 48 instead of 37.Another problem was trying to get a straight answer from the site when I asked a question.Kept getting the run around This other website is called “Romance Tale”,a rip off like chnlove,now called Asiame.

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2 - Greater Toronto Area Dating Site, 100% Free Online Dating in Greater Toronto Area, ON

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

Finding love can be a daunting task, for anyone in the world. But it can be especially frightening if what you want isn’t exactly where you might be. Sometimes a person just wants to meet someone with other traditions, from a different culture, and with a bit of diversity.

But how can one go about finding the best site for what they are looking for? The myth of dating websites and communication Do you want to know about the best to find Chinese women? are considered quiet and docile. I don’t know how many articles I have read where interracial couples are asking the question, “What am I doing wrong in the communication department?” This article will not only introduce you to the best online Chinese dating site to find Chinese women, but it will also help you break that barrier of communication you might have been having.

With the top Chinese dating sites, you have to be prepared to spend a little bit of money, but trust me, when you find your Chinese beauty, all of it will be worth it. Not everyone in the world prefers to use the same method. So, you have many options. There are different websites and apps that offer such kinds of services.

However, you need to know about the authentic websites where you can get the real deal. Top 4 ways to find your dream Chinese lady There are many different avenues one can take to find a Chinese woman online. One could find a matchmaking site that will lead you to your dream Chinese beauty. Chinese women do not like to go out often. You cannot find them at a bar all the time.

Therefore, the quest can be problematic for you. However, there is no need to worry. Chinese women love to hang out with guys as much as any other girl.

But he should be the right guy. The right guy can only be you if she knows you before jumping into the boat. Chinese women prefer using websites to find their dream boys. 1. Online Matchmaking Site: The best Chinese dating site to find Chinese women is If you are looking for a site that will help you locate beautiful Chinese women who share the same values as yourself, then is the site for you.

Their matchmaking services come highly recommended for anyone looking for love in China. True love can happen and sometimes you need the right avenue to find your perfect mate. Why not choose the best Chinese dating site? There are plenty of Chinese angels waiting for you there. All their biodata is accessible and this website is amazing as it provides cheap and affordable deals. 2. Free Online Dating Site: Sometimes you just don’t know if you can trust every site with your money.

Sometimes people just want to see what’s out there before they make a purchase. Can’t I just test drive it for a bit?

That’s where comes in. This is a free dating site that allows you to connect to as many Chinese women as are available at the time.

But remember, you usually get what you pay for. 3. Online Messengers: This is the Chinese version of MSN. If you don’t speak mandarin and you still want to connect with Chinese women live, then might be your best option.

Be sure to let the ladies know you only speak English. This is a great way to chat instantly and see what these beautiful Chinese women are all about. 4. Social Networking App: WEchat Everyone is getting more social all over the world these days. Why not download an app that will connect you to these beautiful Chinese women socially? You can make friends and possibly moreby connecting through a social networking app.

best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2

This article is about the city in Canada. For other uses, see . Toronto ( ( ) ) is the of the of and the in by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto (CMA), of which the majority is within the (GTA), held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's .

Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the in , located on the northwestern shore of . A , Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most and cities in the world. Map 030M11 Code FEUZB GDP 276.3 billion (2014) GDP per capita US$45,771 (2014) Website have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping interspersed with , for more than 10,000 years.

After the broadly disputed , when the surrendered the area to the , the British established the town of in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of . During the , the town was the site of the and suffered heavy damage by . York was and incorporated in 1834 as the . It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during . The has since expanded past its original borders through both and to its current area of 630.2 km 2 (243.3 sq mi).

The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for . More than 50 percent of residents belong to a population group, and over 200 distinct are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national and outlets.

Its varied , which include numerous , , entertainment districts, , and , over 25 million each year. Toronto is known for its many , in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the , the . The city is home to the , the headquarters of Canada's , and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations.

Its is highly diversified with strengths in technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, business services, environmental innovation, food services, and tourism. Main articles: , , and Before 1800 When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the , who had displaced the (Huron) people, occupants of the region for centuries before c.

1500. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water". This refers to the northern end of what is now , where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish.

However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" also appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, which is also an Iroquoian language. It also appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers.

A route from Lake Ontario to running through this point, known as the , led to widespread use of the name.

In the 1660s, the within what is today Toronto, on the banks of the and on the banks of the . By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the , with most returning to their base in present-day New York. In the 17th century, the area was a crucial for travel, with the and rivers providing a shortcut to the upper . These routes together were known as the . French traders founded in 1750 (the current were later developed here), but abandoned it in 1759 due to the turbulence of the .

During the , an influx of settlers came here as fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. The Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies. The new province of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital. In 1787, the British arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres (1000 km 2) of land in the Toronto area.

Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after . Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from (Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States. The was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of and (in the "" area).

1800–1899 In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces. The surrender of the town was negotiated by . American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation.

Because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated later in the war with the , DC. American forces in 1813. The Americans subsequently plundered the town, and set fire to the . York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. Reformist politician became the first Mayor of Toronto and led the unsuccessful of 1837 against the British colonial government. Toronto's population of 9,000 included slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including leader , and fewer , whom the Crown had freed.

(Most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia.) By 1834 refugee slaves from America's South were also immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain freedom.

was banned outright in Upper Canada (and throughout the British Empire) in 1834. Torontonians integrated people of colour into their society. In the 1840s, an eating house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a man of colour named Bloxom. View of Toronto in 1854.

Toronto became a major destination for immigrants to Canada in the second half of the 19th century. As a major destination for immigrants to Canada, the city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century. The first significant wave of immigrants were Irish, fleeing the ; most of them were . By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the significant and long-lasting influence over Toronto society.

For brief periods, Toronto was twice the capital of the united : first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858. After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 (one year before Canadian Confederation). Since then, the capital of Canada has remained , Ontario. Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867.

The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is located at . Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of , the residence of the representative of . Long before the was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto.

Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a company's officer.

The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, Schools of and instruction were formed in Toronto. The buildings c. 19th century. The distillery became the world's largest whiskey factory by the 1860s.

In the 19th century, the city built an extensive sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The and the joined in the building of the first in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before.

These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular, ) centre in North America.

By the 1860s the Distillery operations became the world's largest factory. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the . The harbour allowed for sure access to grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal.

Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years. Initially a horse-drawn system, Toronto's transitioned to electric-powered streetcars in 1892. Horse-drawn gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the . The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the , later renamed the . The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.

Since 1900 The destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire caused more than $10 million in damage, and resulted in more stringent fire safety laws and expansion of the city's fire department.

By 1934 the emerged as the country's largest . The city received new European immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into the early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and other Eastern European nations, in addition to Chinese entering from the West. As the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty-type slums, such as "" which was centred on , now the heart of the country's .

As new migrants began to prosper, they moved to better housing in other areas, in what is now understood to be succession waves of settlement. Despite its fast-paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established , Quebec. However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country. Following the Second World War, refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal.

Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, Toronto became a destination for immigrants from all parts of the world. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most populous city and chief economic hub.

During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the , many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and cities. Construction of , the operational headquarters of the , in 1975. During the 1970s several Canadian financial institutions moved to Toronto.

In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a known as . The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed that a coordinated land-use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region.

The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and .

In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage. In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the and the surrounding municipalities of , , , , and .

In 1998, the Conservative provincial government led by Mike Harris dissolved the metropolitan government, despite vigorous opposition from the component municipalities and overwhelming rejection in a municipal plebiscite. All six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, the successor of the old City of Toronto.

North York mayor became the first "megacity" mayor and the 62nd . is the current mayor. The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the centre of a major outbreak. Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy. On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the 175th anniversary of its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the during June 26–27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in Canadian history.

Following large-scale and rioting, law enforcement conducted the largest mass arrest (more than a thousand people) in Canadian history. On July 8, 2013, severe flash flooding hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto Hydro estimated that 450,000 people were without power after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported that 126 mm (5 in) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel.

Within six months, on December 20, 2013, Toronto was brought to a halt by the worst in the city's history, rivaling the severity of the . Toronto hosted in June 2014 and the in . On April 23, 2018, by a lone perpetrator killed ten people in the within Toronto's northern district. On July 22 of the same year, there was that killed two people; police later shot the perpetrator dead. Main article: Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi), with a maximum north-south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) and a maximum east-west distance of 43 km (27 mi).

It has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The and extend out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered south of the downtown core. The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, and to the west, to the north and the Rouge River and the Toronto-Pickering Townline to the east.

Topography Initially acting as a barrier towards development, the has since been adopted as a central piece of Toronto's landscape. The city is mostly flat or gentle hills and the land gently slopes upward away from the lake. The flat land is interrupted by numerous ravines cut by numerous creeks and the valleys of the three rivers in Toronto: the Humber River in the west end and the east of downtown at opposite ends of Toronto Harbour, and the Rouge River at the city's eastern limits.

Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto today are parklands, and recreational trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys. The original town was laid out in a on the flat plain north of the harbour, and this plan was extended outwards as the city grew. The width and depth of several of the ravines and valleys are such that several grid streets such as , , , and , terminate on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side.

Toronto has many bridges spanning the ravines. Large bridges such as the were built to span wide river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not remarkably hilly, but its elevation does increase steadily away from the lake. Elevation differences range from 75 metres (246 ft) at the Lake Ontario shore to 209 m (686 ft) ASL near the grounds in the city's north end at the intersection of and Steeles Avenue.

There are occasional hilly areas; in particular, has a number of sharply sloping hills. Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far north as , 7 to 8 kilometres (4.3 to 5.0 mi) inland.

The is an along the eastern portion of the , which formed during the . The other major geographical feature of Toronto is its escarpments. During the , the lower part of Toronto was beneath . Today, a series of mark the lake's former boundary, known as the "Iroquois Shoreline". The escarpments are most prominent from to the mouth of where they form the . Other observable sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between and the Don River, and north of from Caledonia to ; the grounds sit above this escarpment.

The geography of the lake shore is greatly changed since the first settlement of Toronto. Much of the land on the north shore of the harbour is landfill, filled in during the late 19th century. Until then, the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back farther inland than today. Much of the adjacent Port Lands on the east side of the harbour was a filled in early in the 20th century.

The shoreline from the harbour west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake. Further west, landfill has been used to create extensions of land such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands were a natural peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel to the harbour.

The peninsula was formed by taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs shore and transporting them to the Islands area. The other source of sediment for the Port Lands wetland and the peninsula was the deposition of the Don River, which carved a wide valley through the sedimentary land of Toronto and deposited it in the harbour, which is quite shallow. The harbour and the channel of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for shipping. The lower section of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the 19th century.

The former mouth drained into a wetland; today the Don drains into the harbour through a concrete waterway, the . Climate The city of Toronto has a hot summer (: Dfa) bordering on a warm summer humid continental climate (: Dfb), with warm, humid summers and cold winters.

According to the classification applied by , Toronto is located in plant hardiness zones 5b to 7a. Toronto Climate chart () J F M A M J J A S O N D 26 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable variance in length. As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems (such as high- and low-pressure systems), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons.

Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low . The denser urbanscape makes for warmer nights year around; the average nighttime temperature is about 3.0 °C (5.40 °F) warmer in the city than in rural areas in all months. However, it can be noticeably cooler on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze since Lake Ontario is cool, relative to the air during these seasons. These lake breezes mostly occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days.

Other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include , fog, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as .

Winters in Toronto are typically cold with frequent snowfall. Winters are cold with frequent snow. During the winter months, temperatures are usually below 0 °C (32 °F). Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by . Occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C (−13 °F). Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain, can disrupt work and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April.

However, mild stretches also occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures. Daytime temperatures are usually above 20 °C (68 °F), and often rise above 30 °C (86 °F). However, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity.

Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. Daytime temperatures average around 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F) during these seasons. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms.

There can be periods of dry weather, but -like conditions are rare. [ ] The average yearly precipitation is about 831 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 122 cm (48 in). Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 sunshine hours, or 45% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 28% in December to 60% in July. Climate data for Toronto (), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1840–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 19.1 (66.4) 26.7 (80.1) 32.2 (90) 34.4 (93.9) 36.7 (98.1) 40.6 (105.1) 38.9 (102) 37.8 (100) 30.8 (87.4) 23.9 (75) 19.9 (67.8) 40.6 (105.1) Average high °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.4 (32.7) 4.7 (40.5) 11.5 (52.7) 18.4 (65.1) 23.8 (74.8) 26.6 (79.9) 25.5 (77.9) 21.0 (69.8) 14.0 (57.2) 7.5 (45.5) 2.1 (35.8) 12.9 (55.2) Daily mean °C (°F) −3.7 (25.3) −2.6 (27.3) 1.4 (34.5) 7.9 (46.2) 14.1 (57.4) 19.4 (66.9) 22.3 (72.1) 21.5 (70.7) 17.2 (63) 10.7 (51.3) 4.9 (40.8) −0.5 (31.1) 9.4 (48.9) Average low °C (°F) −6.7 (19.9) −5.6 (21.9) −1.9 (28.6) 4.1 (39.4) 9.9 (49.8) 14.9 (58.8) 18.0 (64.4) 17.4 (63.3) 13.4 (56.1) 7.4 (45.3) 2.3 (36.1) −3.1 (26.4) 5.9 (42.6) Record low °C (°F) −32.8 (−27) −31.7 (−25.1) −26.7 (−16.1) −15.0 (5) −3.9 (25) −2.2 (28) 3.9 (39) 4.4 (39.9) −2.2 (28) −8.9 (16) −20.6 (−5.1) −30.0 (−22) −32.8 (−27) Average mm (inches) 61.5 (2.42) 55.4 (2.18) 53.7 (2.11) 68.0 (2.68) 82.0 (3.23) 70.9 (2.79) 63.9 (2.52) 81.1 (3.19) 84.7 (3.33) 64.4 (2.54) 84.1 (3.31) 61.5 (2.42) 831.1 (32.72) Average rainfall mm (inches) 29.1 (1.15) 29.7 (1.17) 33.6 (1.32) 61.1 (2.41) 82.0 (3.23) 70.9 (2.79) 63.9 (2.52) 81.1 (3.19) 84.7 (3.33) 64.3 (2.53) 75.4 (2.97) 38.2 (1.5) 714.0 (28.11) Average snowfall cm (inches) 37.2 (14.6) 27.0 (10.6) 19.8 (7.8) 5.0 (2) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0) 8.3 (3.3) 24.1 (9.5) 121.5 (47.8) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.4 11.6 12.6 12.6 12.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 13.0 13.2 145.5 Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.4 4.8 7.9 11.2 12.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 10.9 7.0 114.1 Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.0 8.7 6.5 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 3.1 8.4 40.9 Mean monthly 85.9 111.3 161.0 180.0 227.7 259.6 279.6 245.6 194.4 154.3 88.9 78.1 2,066.3 Percent 29.7 37.7 43.6 44.8 50.0 56.3 59.8 56.7 51.7 45.1 30.5 28.0 44.5 Source: The was originally designed in a style, although other were since been added to the building.

Architecture in Toronto has been called a "mix of periods and styles". Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the , has said: "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles." Toronto's buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the early-19th-century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century. houses, mainly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural feature of the city.

Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower, a telecommunications and tourism hub. Completed in 1976 at a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft 5 in), it was the world's tallest freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by . Toronto is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft).

Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto's architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or parking. In contrast, since the 2000s, Toronto has experienced a period of architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened during the late 2000s. 's addition, 's remake of the , and 's distinctive expansion are among the city's new showpieces.

The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood.

Neighbourhoods This section needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) () Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by many separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Mimico, North York, Parkdale, Scarborough, Swansea, Weston and York.

Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core.

and residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as , , , and . The neighbourhood, historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto's earliest planned communities, was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. The neighbourhood is named after "Casa Loma", a castle built in 1911 by Sir Henry Pellat, complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling alley. is a 19th-century that is now a museum.

Old Toronto Skyline of from the in 2017. The pre-amalgamation City of Toronto covers the area generally known as , but also older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of downtown. It includes the core of Toronto and remains the most densely populated part of the city.

The contains the , , , , and . This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of , , , , and . From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. -era houses are a distinct architectural that is ubiquitous throughout the older neighborhoods of Toronto. Old Toronto is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, , , , , , and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north.

East and west of downtown, neighbourhoods such as , , , Cabbagetown and are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle- and upper-class professionals. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two smaller Chinatowns, the area, , , and , along with others.

Suburbs The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These are mature and traditionally working-class areas, consisting primarily of post–World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as , , , and consist mainly of high-rise apartments, which are home to many new immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically diverse and have undergone as a result of increasing population, and a housing boom during the late 1990s and first two decades of the 21st century.

The first neighbourhoods affected were and , gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area's housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled. In an attempt to curb , many suburban neighbourhoods in Toronto encouraged high density populations by mixing housing lots with apartment buildings far from the downtown core. The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York (north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development.

Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the emergence of metropolitan government, existing towns or villages such as , and in Etobicoke; , and in North York; , and in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s.

Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in , and most of central Etobicoke, such as , and . One of largest and earliest "planned communities" was , parts of which were first built in the 1950s. Phased development, mixing single-detached housing with higher-density apartment blocks, became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late 20th century and early 21st century, , Etobicoke City Centre and have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto.

High-rise development in these areas has given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own with high-density transit corridors serving them. Industrial The holds the largest collection of preserved Victorian industrial architecture in North America. In the 1800s, a thriving industrial area developed around Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth, linked by rail and water to Canada and the United States. Examples included the Gooderham and Worts Distillery, Canadian Malting Company, the Toronto Rolling Mills, the Union Stockyards and the (the inspiration for the "Hogtown" nickname).

This industrial area expanded west along the harbour and rail lines and was supplemented by the infilling of the marshlands on the east side of the harbour to create the Port Lands. A garment industry developed along lower Spadina Avenue, the "". Beginning in the late 19th century, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts, such as , where the Stockyards relocated in 1903.

The Great Fire of 1904 destroyed a large amount of industry in the downtown. Some of the companies moved west along King Street, some as far west as Dufferin Street; where the large farm equipment manufacturing complex was located. Over time, pockets of industrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards.

This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses are located in the suburban environs of and Regions; but also within the current city: Etobicoke (concentrated around ), North York, and Scarborough. The is one of many in the downtown area that has undergone redevelopment. Many of Toronto's close to (or in) Downtown have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront, the rail yards west of downtown, and , the Massey-Harris district and large-scale development is underway in the .

The Gooderham & Worts Distillery produced spirits until 1990, and is preserved today as the "Distillery District," the largest and best-preserved collection of industrial architecture in North America. Some industry remains in the area, including the . Similar areas that still retain their industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville.

Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as , Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/ and The Junction areas still contain factories, meat-packing facilities and rail yards close to medium-density residential, although the Junction's Union Stockyards moved out of Toronto in 1994.

The "brownfield" industrial area of the Port Lands, on the east side of the harbour, is one area planned for redevelopment.

Formerly a marsh that was filled in to create industrial space, it was never intensely developed, its land unsuitable for large-scale development, because of flooding and unstable soil. It still contains numerous industrial uses, such as the power plant, some port facilities, some movie and TV production studios, a concrete processing facility and various low-density industrial facilities. The agency has developed plans for a naturalized mouth to the Don River and to create a flood barrier around the Don, making more of the land on the harbour suitable for higher-value residential and commercial development.

A former chemicals plant site along the Don River is slated to become a large commercial complex and transportation hub.

Public spaces This section needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) () Toronto has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines.

is the city's main square in downtown, and forms the entrance to . , near City Hall, has also gained attention in recent years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. Other squares include , on the Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably in North York.

The is an advocacy group concerned with the city's public spaces. In recent years, Nathan Phillips Square has been refurbished with new facilities, and the central waterfront along Queen's Quay West has been updated recently with a new street architecture and a new square next to Harbourfront Centre. In the winter, Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for public ice-skating.

Etobicoke's Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto's first skating trail. Centennial Park and offer outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a , rental facilities, and lessons. Several parks have marked cross-country skiing trails. is a located in the eastern portion of the city. There are many large downtown parks, which include , , , , , Queen's Park, and . An almost hidden park is the compact , which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse, near Queen and Yonge.

South of downtown are two large parks on the waterfront: Tommy Thompson Park on the , which has a nature preserve, is open on weekends; and the Toronto Islands, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas managed by the city include , , , , , and . Toronto also operates several public golf courses. Most ravine lands and river bank floodplains in Toronto are public parklands. After Hurricane Hazel in 1954, construction of buildings on floodplains was outlawed, and private lands were bought for conservation.

In 1999, Downsview Park, a former military base in North York, initiated an international design competition to realize its vision of creating Canada's first . The winner, "Tree City", was announced in May 2000. Approximately 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres), or 12.5 percent of Toronto's land base is maintained parkland. Morningside Park is the largest park managed by the city, which is 241.46 hectares (596.7 acres) in size. In addition to public parks managed by the municipal government, parts of , the largest in North America, is located in the of Toronto.

Managed by , the is centred around the , and encompasses several municipalities in the . This section needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) () Toronto theatre and scene has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres.

The city is home to the , the , the , the , and the . Notable performance venues include the , , the , the , , the , the and the (originally the "O'Keefe Centre" and formerly the "Hummingbird Centre"). features the world's first permanent movie theatre, the , as well as the , an open-air venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario Place closed after a decline in attendance over the years.

Although the Molson Amphitheatre and harbour still operate, the park and Cinesphere are no longer in use. There are ongoing plans to revitalise Ontario Place. is a festival celebrating Caribbean culture and traditions. Held each summer in the city, it is North America's largest street festival. Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor production in Toronto's High Park called "Dream in High Park".

acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street. The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Toronto as of 2011 ranks as the third largest production centre for film and television after and , sharing the nickname "" with Vancouver. The is an annual event celebrating the international film industry.

Another prestigious film festival is the , that screens the works of students ages 12–18 from many different countries across the globe. Toronto's (formerly known as Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival) takes place from mid-July to early August of every summer. Primarily based on the , the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city's Caribbean community celebrated . More than forty years later, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto's annually.

Tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates over $400 million in revenue into Ontario's economy. One of the largest events in the city, takes place in late June, and is one of the largest festivals in the world. Media Main article: Toronto is Canada's largest media market, and has four conventional dailies, two , and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants.

The and the are the prominent daily city newspapers, while national dailies and the are also headquartered in the city. The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are broadsheet newspapers. and are distributed as free commuter newspapers. Several magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including and , while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as , , and .

Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks , , , , (TSN) and . , and are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music videos as a result of . Tourism This section needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) () The is a museum of world culture and . The , is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species.

The contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and , and also plays host to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. The of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum's collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The city also hosts the , the , and . The is a museum dedicated to , as well as a . Other prominent art galleries and museums include the , the , the , the , the , the , the , the , the , , the TD Gallery of Inuit Art and the .

The city also runs its own museums, which include the Spadina House. The is a former industrial site that opened in 1889, and was partly restored as a park and heritage site in 1996, with further restoration and reuse being completed in stages since then. The ("The Ex") is held annually at Exhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the world.

The Ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million. City shopping areas include the Yorkville neighbourhood, , , the , the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market neighbourhood. The is Toronto's most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually. Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual "" festival which attracts over one million people in 2½ days. Toronto is also home to Casa Loma, the former estate of , a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man.

Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include , the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the . Sports This section needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) () Toronto is represented in six , with teams in the , , , , and . It was formerly represented in a seventh, the , until that announced on November 6, 2015 that it would cease operation ahead of 2016 season.

The city's major sports venues include the (formerly Air Canada Centre), (formerly SkyDome), (formerly Ricoh Coliseum), and .

Professional sports Mural of the , at . The Maple Leafs are a professional club with the . Toronto is home to the , one of the National Hockey League's clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich history of championships. Along with the Maple Leafs' 13 titles, the and -based teams, combined, have won a record 12 titles.

The of the also play in Toronto at Coca-Cola Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. The city is home to the professional team of Major League Baseball (MLB). The team has won two titles (, ). The Blue Jays play their home games at the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core.

Toronto has a long history of minor-league professional baseball dating back to the 1800s, culminating in the baseball team, whose owner first proposed an MLB team for Toronto. The host the at the . The entered the National Basketball Association (NBA) in 1995, and have since earned seven playoff spots and three titles in 20 seasons. The Raptors are the only NBA team with their own television channel, . They and the Maple Leafs play their home games at the Scotiabank Arena. In 2016, Toronto hosted the 65th NBA All-Star game, the first to be held outside the United States.

The city is represented in the Canadian Football League by the , who have won 17 titles. Toronto is represented in Major League Soccer by the , who have won six titles, as well as the in . They share BMO Field with the Toronto Argonauts. Toronto has a high level of participation in soccer across the city at several smaller stadiums and fields. Toronto FC entered the league as an expansion team.

is an outdoor stadium that is home to the 's and 's . The are the city's team. They won five titles in seven years in the late 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century, appearing in an NLL record five straight championship games from 1999 to 2003, and are currently first all-time in the number of Champion's Cups won.

The Rock share the Scotiabank Arena with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors. Toronto has hosted several exhibition games at the Rogers Centre. leased the from for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2013.

The became Canada's first professional team and the world's first transatlantic professional sports team when they began play in the 's competition in 2017. Toronto is home to the , a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the (AUDL). , in Canada, has its beginning roots in Toronto, with 3300 players competing annually in the Toronto Ultimate Club (League). Collegiate sports The in Downtown Toronto was where the first recorded game was held. Many post-secondary institutions in Toronto are members of or the .

Toronto was home to the , an sanctioned post-season college football game that pitted a team against a team. From 2007 to 2010, the game was played at Rogers Centre annually in January. Events Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual tournament called the (not to be confused with the ) between the months of July and August.

In odd-numbered years, the men's tournament is held in Montreal, while the women's tournament is held in Toronto, and vice versa in even-numbered years. attending the 2010 at in Toronto. The city hosts the annual car race, part of the schedule, held on a street circuit at Exhibition Place.

It was known previously as the 's Molson Indy Toronto from 1986 to 2007. Both and events are conducted at in . Toronto hosted the 2015 Pan American Games in July 2015, and the in August 2015. It beat the cities of , Peru and , Colombia, to win the rights to stage the games.

The games were the largest ever to be held in Canada (in terms of athletes competing), double the size of the in , British Columbia. Toronto was a candidate city for the and , which were awarded to and respectively. Historic sports clubs of Toronto include (established in 1836), the (established in 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (established before 1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (established in 1872), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (established in 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (established in 1924).

Professional and amateur sports teams in Toronto Club League Sport Venue Established Championships 1873 17 (Last in ) 1917 13 (Last in ) 1977 2 (Last in ) 1995 0 2007 1 (Last in ) 2017 1 (in ) 1969 8 1998 6 (last in ) 2005 1 (last in ) 2007 1 2005 0 1989 12 2013 1 A view of the from .

The district acts as the city's . Toronto is an international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street, in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world's stock exchange by market capitalization. The five largest financial institutions of Canada, collectively known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto.

The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunication, information technology and film production industries; it is home to , , and .

Other prominent Canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include , , , , the , and major hotel companies and operators, such as and . Although much of the region's manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector.

The city's strategic position along the and its road and rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the in 1959 gave ships access to the from the Atlantic Ocean.

Toronto's unemployment rate was 6.7% as of July 2016. According to the website Numbeo, Toronto's cost of living plus rent index was second highest in Canada (of 31 cities). The local purchasing power was the sixth lowest in Canada, mid-2017. The average monthly social assistance caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. The number of seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5% in 2011 to 12.1% in 2014. Toronto's 2013 child poverty rate was 28.6%, the highest among large Canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents.

View of on . The city's population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, 4.3% (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011, and 4.5% (116,511) between 2011 and 2016.

In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 15.6%. The age was 39.3 years. The city's gender population is 48% male and 52% female. Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older.

In 2016, foreign-born persons made up 47.5% of the population, compared to 49.9% in 2006. According to the , Toronto has the second-highest percentage of constant foreign-born population among world cities, after .

While Miami's foreign-born population has traditionally consisted primarily of and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world. In 2010, it was estimated that over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area annually.

Ethnicity In 2016, the three most commonly reported ethnic origins overall were Chinese (332,830 or 12.5%), English (331,890 or 12.3%) and Canadian (323,175 or 12.0%).

Common regions of ethnic origin were European (47.9%), Asian (including middle-Eastern – 40.1%), African (5.5%), Latin/Central/South American (4.2%), and North American aboriginal (1.2%).

In 2016, 51.5% of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1% in 2011, and 13.6% in 1981. The largest visible minority groups were (338,960 or 12.6%), (332,830 or 12.5%), and (239,850 or 8.9%).

Visible minorities are projected to increase to 63% of the city's population by 2031. This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, , Greektown, Kensington Market (alternative/counterculture), , Little India, Little Italy, , and (Polish community).

Religion 24.2% In 2011, the most commonly reported religion in Toronto was , adhered to by 54.1% of the population. A plurality, 28.2%, of the city's population was , followed by Protestants (11.9%), (4.3%), and members of other Christian denominations (9.7%). Other religions significantly practised in the city are (8.2%), (5.6%), (3.8%), (2.7%), and (0.8%). Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2% of Toronto's population.

Language While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers. The varieties of Chinese and Italian are the second and third most widely spoken languages at work. Despite Canada's , while 9.7% of live in Toronto, only 0.6% of the population reported as a singular language spoken most often at home; meanwhile 64% reported speaking predominantly English only and 28.3% primarily used a non-official language; 7.1% reported commonly speaking multiple languages at home.

The city's emergency services are equipped to respond in over 150 languages. Map of Toronto's 44 municipal electoral wards. Toronto is a governed by a . The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the . The Mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the of the city.

The is a legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographical throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without . (Until the , the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.) However, on November 18, 2013, council voted to modify the city's government by transferring many executive powers from the mayor to the deputy mayor, and itself.

acts as the seat of the . As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consisting of a chairman, (some have a vice-chair), and a number of councillors. The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council. An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors.

Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the . The city has four community councils that consider local matters. City Council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council.

Each city councillor serves as a member of a community council. There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council.

These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the . The City of Toronto had an approved operating budget of CA$10.5 billion in 2017 and a 10-year capital budget and plan of CA$26.5 billion. The city's revenues include subsidies from the and the , 33% from property tax, 6% from the land transfer tax and the rest from other tax revenues and user fees.

The City's largest operating expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA$1.955 billion (19%), and the , CA$1.131 billion (9%). This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2016) The low in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America. For instance, in 2007, the rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta (19.7), Boston (10.3), Los Angeles (10.0), New York City (6.3), Vancouver (3.1), and Montreal (2.6).

Toronto's robbery rate also ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles (348.5), Vancouver (266.2), New York City (265.9), and Montreal (235.3).

Toronto has a comparable rate of to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada. The total number of homicides in Toronto reached a record 91 in November 2018 (this number included the and ). The record year for per capita murders was 1991, with 3.8 murders per 100,000 people. In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because of a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total.

The total number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006; that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total. 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involved guns.

Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a result, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun strategy. In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year. The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47.

While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained nearly flat line of 57-59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. 2016 went to 75 for the first time in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65.

As of November 20, 2018, Toronto had the highest homicide rate among major Canadian cities with a rate of 3.5 per 100,000 people. It's current homicide rate is higher than in , , , , , , , , , and . at the . University College is one of eleven colleges at the University of Toronto. Toronto has a number of post-secondary academic institutions.

The , established in 1827, is Canada's largest university and has two satellite campuses, is located in the city's eastern district of Scarborough while is located in the neighbouring city of . , Canada's third-largest university, founded in 1959, is located in the northwest part of the city. Toronto is also home to , , and the . There are four diploma- and degree-granting in Toronto. These are , , and . The city is also home to a satellite campus of the francophone .

, which includes , is a school of music located downtown. The is a film, television and new media training institute founded by filmmaker . is a Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary. The (TDSB) operates 588 public schools. Of these, 451 are elementary and 116 are secondary (high) schools.

Additionally, the manages the city's publicly funded Roman Catholic schools, while the and the manage public and Roman Catholic French-language schools, respectively.

There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools including the , the and . The consists of 100 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection. is a major located in downtown Toronto.

Toronto is home to 20 public hospitals, including: , , , , , , , , , , (CAMH), and , many of which are affiliated with the . In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average ER wait times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment. After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours.

Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms. 50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room. The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours. The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds.

Toronto's is a centre for research in . Toronto's is a centre of research in . It is located on a 2.5-square-kilometre (620-acre) research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core. It is also home to the , which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM). Specialized hospitals are also located outside of the downtown core.

These hospitals include the geriatric hospital and the for children with disabilities. Toronto is also host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and Canadian residents. Organizations include , the , the , the , and , all situated in the same office at , the , the , the , , the , the , and many others.

These organizations work to help people within the GTA, Ontario or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. As well, most engage in fundraising to promote research, services, and public awareness.

Transportation Main article: Toronto's main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). The backbone of its public transport network is the system, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines spanning the city, including the U-shaped and east–west . A light metro line also exists, exclusively serving the eastern district of Scarborough, but a discussion is underway to replace it with a heavy-rail line.

The operates largest and . The TTC also operates an extensive network of and , with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse subway network.

TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the subway, and many subway stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and surface vehicles. There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns.

Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the subway (line 1) extension north of (formerly named Downsview) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre. By November 2011, construction on began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish by 2021. In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund (line 7) which is to be completed by 2021.

Toronto's public transit network also connects to other municipal networks such as , , , and . The Government of Ontario also operates a and bus transit system called in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday (2013) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from .

GO Transit is implementing RER (Regional Express Rail) into its system. Airports Interior view of 's Terminal 1. Toronto Pearson serves as the for the . Canada's busiest airport, (: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is also offered from the (IATA: YTZ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown.

(IATA: YKZ) in provides facilities. (IATA: YZD), near the city's north end, is owned by and serves the aircraft factory. The is a train service that provides a direct link between Pearson International and Union Station. It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Hamilton's (IATA: YHM) and Buffalo's (IATA: BUF) also serve as alternate airports for the Toronto area in addition to serving their respective cities.

Intercity transportation serves as the hub for 's intercity services in Central Canada, and includes services to various parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long distance services to Vancouver and New York City.

The in downtown Toronto also serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighboring provinces and states. GO Transit provides intercity bus services from and other bus terminals in the city to destinations within the GTA. Road system is a that passes west to east through the . The volume of vehicles that use Toronto's portion of Highway 401 makes it the busiest highway in North America, as well as one of the widest.

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a system, in which major are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart (with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they were originally separate townships). Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north-south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angled north of Eglinton Avenue.

This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto's grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north. There are a number of municipal and that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America, and one of the busiest highways in the world. Other provincial highways include which connects the city with Northern Ontario and beyond and , an extension of the into the northern suburbs.

The (QEW), North America's first divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto's western boundary and connects Toronto to and . The main municipal expressways in Toronto include the , the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, . Toronto's traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the second highest in Canada after Vancouver, British Columbia. • ^ Benson, Denise. . Eye Weekly. Archived from on November 30, 2007 .

Retrieved December 5, 2006. • . • . • Johnson, Jessica (August 4, 2007). . . Archived from on April 16, 2008. • . September 18, 2007. Archived from on December 9, 2011 . Retrieved February 10, 2012. • ^ . . . 2017 . Retrieved 2017-02-12. • ^ . . . January 13, 2014 . Retrieved December 11, 2014.

• ^ . . . January 13, 2014 . Retrieved December 11, 2014. • ^ . Brookings Institution. Archived from on June 4, 2013 . Retrieved November 18, 2014. • Robert Vipond (April 24, 2017). . University of Toronto Press. p. 147. . • David P. Varady (February 2012). . SUNY Press. p. 3. . • Ute Husken; Frank Neubert (November 7, 2011). . Oxford University Press. p. 163. . • . Archived from on April 16, 2015 .

Retrieved April 30, 2015. • , p. 34. • . . Retrieved July 14, 2015. • . April 21, 2013 . Retrieved July 14, 2015. • . Toronto. • Citizenship and Immigration Canada (September 2006). . Archived from on March 11, 2007 . Retrieved March 1, 2007. • Flew, Janine; Humphries, Lynn; Press, Limelight; McPhee, Margaret (2004). The Children's Visual World Atlas. Sydney, Australia: Fog City Press. p. 76. . • ^ .

Statistics Canada . Retrieved October 31, 2017. • . Archived from on April 6, 2015 . Retrieved April 2, 2015. • (PDF). City of Toronto. Archived from (PDF) on June 18, 2016 .

Retrieved June 7, 2016. • . Archived from on July 28, 2015 . Retrieved July 30, 2015. • . Retrieved July 30, 2015. • . Archived from on July 28, 2015 . Retrieved July 30, 2015. • . Archived from on July 28, 2015 . Retrieved July 30, 2015. • (PDF) . Retrieved July 3, 2015. • . Toronto Press Room. Archived from on May 18, 2015 . Retrieved July 10, 2015. • (PDF). .

Retrieved June 7, 2016. • . City of Toronto. Archived from on May 4, 2015 . Retrieved April 30, 2015. • . City of Toronto. Archived from on May 14, 2015. • Melanson, Trevor. . Canadian Business. • Torontoist. . • , p. 154. • , p. 21.

• ^ (2007) – , . Retrieved March 1, 2015. • ICF Consulting (February 2000). . Archived from on January 27, 2007 . Retrieved March 1, 2007. • . . Retrieved April 30, 2015. • , pp. 12–18. • See R. F. Williamson, ed., Toronto: An Illustrated History of its First 12,000 Years (Toronto: James Lorimer, 2008), ch. 2, with reference to the . • . (2005). Archived from on October 16, 2006 .

Retrieved December 8, 2006. • , p. 26. • ^ , p. 27. • . • September 13, 2012, at the ., Jarvis Collegiate Institute (2006). Retrieved December 8, 2006. • , City of Toronto (2006). Retrieved December 8, 2006. • . Government of Ontario. Archived from on October 22, 2009 . Retrieved July 13, 2007. • . Friends of Fort York (2006) . Retrieved December 8, 2006. • . Archived from on August 20, 2007 . Retrieved July 10, 2007. • February 2, 2014, at the ., City of Toronto (2009).

Retrieved March 13, 2009. • . UK Government . Retrieved September 13, 2017. • , p. 25. • . . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • . Archived from (JPG) on April 7, 2016 . Retrieved June 7, 2016. • Preston, Richard. Canada's RMC: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada. RMC Club by U of Toronto Press.

• ^ (2005). Retrieved February 3, 2007. [ ] • . Journal of Canadian Studies. 2002. Archived from on March 30, 2008 . Retrieved January 14, 2007. • . . 2000 . Retrieved December 29, 2006. • . Library and Archives Canada. 2006 . Retrieved December 19, 2008. • Witten, David (2016). . . Retrieved June 2, 2017. • Laurance, Jeremy (April 23, 2003). . The Independent . Retrieved May 22, 2018.

• . The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • . Global Toronto. July 9, 2013 . Retrieved July 18, 2013. • . Toronto Star. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • .

TORONTO 2015 Pan Am / Parapan Am Games . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • , Statistics Canada (2001). Retrieved December 5, 2006. • . City of Toronto . Retrieved February 14, 2008. • . City of Toronto. October 23, 2000 . Retrieved December 6, 2009. • Longley, Richard (September 14, 2017). . NOW Magazine . Retrieved February 14, 2018. • Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644.

:. . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list () • Service, Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest. . . Retrieved June 7, 2016. • Service, Government of Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. . . Retrieved July 11, 2017. • ^ . Environment Canada . Retrieved 30 August 2018. • ^ (PDF). Toronto's Future Weather and Climate Driver Study.

City of Toronto. 2011. Archived from (PDF) on August 20, 2015 . Retrieved September 20, 2015. • ^ (PDF). Toronto's Future Weather and Climate Driver Study. City of Toronto.

2011. Archived from (PDF) on August 20, 2015 . Retrieved September 20, 2015. • ^ . City of Toronto. Archived from on September 9, 2015 .

Retrieved September 20, 2015. • ^ . 1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Environment Canada. February 13, 2014.

Climate ID: 6158350 . Retrieved February 24, 2014. • . Canadian Climate Data. . June 22, 2016. Climate ID: 6158350 . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • . Canadian Climate Data. . June 22, 2016. Climate ID: 6158350 . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • . Canadian Climate Data. . June 22, 2016. Climate ID: 6158355 . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • Shum, David; Miller, Adam (February 23, 2017). . Global News. • . Canadian Climate Data.

. June 22, 2016. Climate ID: 6158355 . Retrieved July 15, 2016. • . Canadian Climate Data. . August 9, 2016. Climate ID: 6158355 . Retrieved February 24, 2017.

• . Archived from on November 1, 2011. • , (2007); retrieved September 13, 2007. [ ] • . Toronto Star. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd . Retrieved July 16, 2016. • Most of these buildings are residential, whereas the central business district contains commercial office towers. There has been recent attention given for the need to retrofit many of these buildings, which were constructed beginning in the 1950s as residential apartment blocks to accommodate a quickly growing population.

As of November 2011, the city had 132 high-rise buildings under construction. . Toronto Star. October 5, 2011. "Some 132 tall buildings are currently rising in Toronto, by far the most in North America." . Retrieved April 18, 2014. • . City of Toronto. 2005. Archived from on November 11, 2007. • . . Retrieved July 16, 2016. • . Maple Tree Publishing .

Retrieved July 16, 2016. • . Liberty Entertainment Group . Retrieved July 16, 2016. • . City of Toronto. Archived from on July 4, 2016 .

Retrieved July 16, 2016. • Fox, Paul L. (March 12, 1953). "Plan town of 45,000 on Don Mills farms; Will cost 10,000,000". . p. 3. • ^ . Toronto Historical Association . Retrieved September 13, 2017.

• Flack, Derek (August 24, 2011). . blogTO. • . • . Archived from on February 5, 2017 . Retrieved February 4, 2017. • . Leslieville Historical Society. April 13, 2015 . Retrieved February 4, 2017. • . . Retrieved February 4, 2017. • . First Gulf . Retrieved September 13, 2017. • . Lost Streams, Toronto, Web site . Retrieved March 27, 2009. • ^ Armstrong, James; McAllister, Mark (April 5, 2013). . Global News . Retrieved October 1, 2015.

• . CBCNews. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 22, 2017 . Retrieved March 7, 2018. • . . Retrieved December 3, 2012. • . Toronto Sun . Retrieved July 16, 2016. • (PDF). City of Toronto. September 1, 2012. • Scott, Vernon. . Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 12B . Retrieved June 10, 2011. • . City of Toronto .

Retrieved January 1, 2007. • . CBC News. March 9, 2004. Archived from on March 30, 2008 . Retrieved January 1, 2007. • , WORD Magazine (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2006. • . Toronto Star. May 3, 2010 . Retrieved June 1, 2010. • April 14, 2015, at the . Media Job Search Canada (2003). Retrieved May 8, 2007. • . . Archived from on September 11, 2007 . Retrieved October 11, 2007. • Buhasz, Laszlo (May 7, 2003). . Globe and Mail.

Toronto. Archived from on April 11, 2008 . Retrieved October 11, 2007. • . . 2006. Archived from on May 9, 2012 . Retrieved December 29, 2006. • City of Toronto (2007). . Yonge Dundas Square. Archived from on January 9, 2009 . Retrieved April 12, 2008. • . Archived from on April 1, 2007 . Retrieved July 7, 2007.

• November 19, 2015, at the . • . . Retrieved June 7, 2016. • . AllStarweekendToronto . Retrieved February 13, 2016. • W., T.A. (March 8, 2017). . . Retrieved March 12, 2017.

• Hall, Joseph (October 30, 2015). . The Star . Retrieved October 30, 2015. • . Retrieved October 30, 2015. • . Retrieved October 30, 2015. • . Archived from on October 19, 2008. • Cayley, Shawn (August 12, 2014). . . Retrieved August 31, 2014. • Byers, Jim (July 10, 2007). . The Star.

Toronto . Retrieved May 25, 2010. • February 9, 2010, at the . Toronto Stock Exchange (2006). Retrieved May 11, 2007. • . Government of Canada . Retrieved July 16, 2016. • . Numbeo . Retrieved November 4, 2017. • . Numbeo . Retrieved November 4, 2017. • . Archived from on March 19, 2016 . Retrieved September 27, 2017.

• ^ . Statistics Canada . Retrieved October 31, 2017. • ^ Francine Kopun; Nicholas Keung (December 5, 2007). . Toronto Star . Retrieved October 7, 2008. • . The Globe and Mail. October 7, 2010 . Retrieved February 8, 2014. • ^ .

Government of Canada . Retrieved April 18, 2014. • " March 10, 2012, at the .". (). CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. • Javed, Noor (March 10, 2010). . Toronto Star. • Jeff Clark (2013). (Map). Neoformix . Retrieved September 12, 2015. • , Statistics Canada (2006); retrieved September 9, 2009.

• , Statistics Canada (2001). Retrieved December 5, 2006. • , Statistics Canada (2001); retrieved December 5, 2006. • . – . June 13, 2014 . Retrieved November 25, 2015. • . . April 17, 2014 . Retrieved November 25, 2015. • . . Archived from on October 28, 2014 . Retrieved January 5, 2007. • . City of Toronto. Archived from on July 15, 2016 . Retrieved July 17, 2016. • . November 18, 2013. • ^ . City of Toronto .

Retrieved July 17, 2016. • . City of Toronto . Retrieved March 18, 2007. • . City of Toronto. Archived from on September 14, 2017 . Retrieved September 13, 2017. • ^ (PDF). City of Toronto. Archived from (PDF) on July 26, 2017 .

Retrieved September 13, 2017. • ^ Statistics Canada; The Daily (July 21, 2006). . Archived from on October 24, 2008 . Retrieved March 5, 2007. • . Torontoisms. Archived from on March 30, 2008. • ^ . December 26, 2007 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • . Archived from on April 12, 2010 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • Topping, David (July 22, 2008). . Torontoist . Retrieved April 17, 2010.

• . Vancouver Sun. Canada. March 15, 2009. Archived from on April 18, 2009 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • (PDF) . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on June 23, 2010 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • (PDF). . Retrieved April 17, 2010.

• Rankin, Jim (November 18, 2018). . Toronto Star. • . Archived from on December 27, 2009 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • . Archived from on February 14, 2009. • . October 25, 2005 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • Doucette, Chris (December 31, 2011). . Toronto Sun . Retrieved February 18, 2012. • . . November 23, 2015.

Archived from on November 26, 2015. • . Toronto District School Board . Retrieved November 26, 2016. • . Toronto Public Library . Retrieved October 17, 2010. • . Toronto Public Library .

Retrieved September 5, 2015. • "" (February 3, 2006). Retrieved July 8, 2007. February 24, 2006, at the . • ^ . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

January 25, 2007. Archived from on December 11, 2008 . Retrieved April 17, 2010. • September 28, 2007, at the ., Toronto Discovery District (2006). Retrieved December 5, 2006. • . Medical and Related Sciences Centre.

2006 . Retrieved December 5, 2006. • . 2006 . Retrieved December 5, 2006. • . . Retrieved May 1, 2015. • . .

Retrieved May 1, 2015. • . . Retrieved May 1, 2015. • (PDF). GO Transit. Archived from (PDF) on March 6, 2012 .

Retrieved May 24, 2011. • Lewington, Jennifer; McLeod, Lori (November 2007). . Globe and Mail. Toronto . Retrieved November 3, 2015. • . Metrolinx . Retrieved May 1, 2015. • Maier, Hanna (October 9, 2007). "Chapter 2". . (Report). Federal Highway Administration . Retrieved May 1, 2010.

The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004, and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles.

• . . August 6, 2002. Archived from on September 14, 2007 . Retrieved March 18, 2007. Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto. • Brian Gray (April 10, 2004). . , transcribed at Urban Planet . Retrieved March 18, 2007. The "phenomenal" number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto makes it the busiest freeway in the world...

• . . Retrieved September 13, 2017. • ^ . City of Toronto. Archived from on 2012-08-04 . Retrieved 2013-06-16. • [Lisbon – Twinning of Cities and Towns]. Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities] (in Portuguese) . Retrieved August 23, 2013. • [Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese).

Archived from on October 31, 2013 . Retrieved August 23, 2013. • [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from on October 18, 2011 . Retrieved August 23, 2013. • WikiSource (in Portuguese) Bibliography • Dinnie, Keith (2011).

. Palgrave Macmillan. . • Duffy, Hazel (2004). . Taylor & Francis. . • Gibson, Sally (2008). Toronto's Distillery District: history by the lake. Cityscape Holdings Inc. and Dundee Distillery District (GP) Commercial Inc. . • Hounsom, Eric Wilfrid (1970). Toronto in 1810. Toronto: Ryerson Press. . • Johansen Aase, Emily (2014). Cosmopolitanism and Place: Spatial Forms in Contemporary Anglophone Literature.

New York City, NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan. . • Johnson, James Keith; Wilson, Bruce G. (1989). Historical Essays on Upper Canada: New Perspectives. McGill-Queen's Press. . • Myrvold, Barbara; Fahey, Curtis (1997). The people of Scarborough : a history.

Scarborough, Ont.: Scarborough Public Library Board. . • Robertson, John Ross (1894). Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto: A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 Until 1837, and of Toronto from 1834 to 1894. Toronto: J.

Ross Robertson. • Schmalz, Peter S. (1991). The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press|. . • Williamson, R. F., ed. (2008). Toronto: An Illustrated History of its First 12,000 Years. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer. • Akler, Howard; Hood, Sarah (2003). . Arsenal Pulp Press. . • . . Historica Foundation of Canada.

Archived from on January 3, 2006 . Retrieved December 3, 2005. • Careless, J. M. S (1984). . J. Lorimer and National Museum of Man. . • (Google Earth). 2007 . Retrieved July 7, 2007. • (2008). . . . • Fulford, Robert (1995). Accidental city: the transformation of Toronto. Toronto: Macfarlane, Walter & Ross. . Also (paperback).

• Harris, Richard (October 7, 1999). . JHU Press. . • The novel "" by depicts Toronto in the 1920s, giving prominence to the construction of Toronto landmarks, such as the and the , and focusing on the lives of the immigrant workers. • Phillips, Robert; Bram, Leon; Dickey, Norma (1971). Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. Vol. 23. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. . • Rayburn, Alan (2001). (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

. • Statistics Canada (2003). . Statistics Canada. 2002. 2001 Community Profiles. Catalogue no. 93F0053XIE . Retrieved December 3, 2005. • City of Toronto. . City of Toronto.

Archived from on June 19, 2006 . Retrieved May 30, 2006. • Whitzman, Carolyn (2009). . UBC Press. .

Best chinese dating sites toronto area code 6 2 Rating: 6,7/10 1142 reviews
Categories: best dating sites