Best carbon dating explained for dummies

best carbon dating explained for dummies

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best carbon dating explained for dummies

Carbon-14 dating—explained in everyday terms Carbon-14 dating—explained in everyday terms by [This article of mine, written in 1979, is obviously outdated and should not be relied upon. It is retained as part of our archive on Creation magazine, but for a current summary of CMI’s view on carbon-14 dating, the reader is referred to Chapter 4, of CMI’s .

—CW.] Summary An attempt to explain this very important method of dating and the way in which, when fully understood, it supports a ‘short’ timescale. In fact, the whole method is a giant ‘clock’ which seems to put a very young upper limit on the age of the atmosphere. The article is in straightforward language and the non-technical reader could profitably work through it.

Carbon-14 (C 14) or radiocarbon as it is often called, is a substance manufactured in the upper atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays.

Ordinary nitrogen (N 14) is converted into C 14 as shown to the right. Ordinary carbon is carbon-12 (C 12). We find it in carbon dioxide in the air we breathe (CO 2), which of course is cycled by plants and animals throughout nature, so that your body, or the leaf of a tree, or even a piece of wooden furniture, contains carbon.

When C 14 has been formed, it behaves just like ordinary carbon (C 12), combining with oxygen to give carbon dioxide (C 14-O 2), and also gets freely cycled through the cells of all plants and animals. The difference is this: once C 14 has been formed, it begins to decay radioactively back to N 14, at a rate of change which can be measured. If we take a sample of air, and measure how many C 12 atoms there are for every C 14 atom, this is called the C 14/C 12 ratio.

Because C 14 is so well ‘mixed up’ with the C 12, we find that this ration is the same if we sample a leaf from a tree, or a part of your body. Think of it like a teaspoon of cocoa mixed into a cake dough—after a while, the ‘ratio’ of cocoa to flour particles would be roughly the same no matter which part of the cake you sampled.

The fact that the C 14 atoms are changing back to N 14 doesn’t matter in a living thing—because it is constantly exchanging carbon with its surroundings, the ‘mixture’ will be the same as in the atmosphere and in all living things. As soon as it dies, however, the C 14 atoms which decay are no longer replaced by new ones from outside, so the amount of C 14 in that living thing gets smaller and smaller as time goes on.

Another way of saying it is that the C 14/C 12 ration gets smaller. In other words, we have a ‘clock’ which starts ticking at the moment something dies. Obviously this only works for things which once contained carbon—it can’t be used to date rocks and minerals, for example. We know how quickly C 14 decays, and so it becomes possible to measure how long it has been since the plant or animal died.

But wait—how do we know what the C 14/C 12 ratio was to start with? We obviously need to know this to be able to work out at what point the ‘clock’ began to tick. We’ve seen that it would have been the same as in the atmosphere at the time the specimen died.

So how do we know what that was? Do scientists assume that it was the same as it is now? Well, not exactly. It is well known that the industrial revolution, with its burning of huge masses of coal, etc. has upset the natural carbon balance by releasing huge quantities of C 12 into the air, for example.

Tree-ring studies can tell us what the C 14/C 12 ratio was like before the industrial revolution, and all radiocarbon dating is made with this in mind.

How do we know what the ratio was before then, though, say thousands of years ago? It is assumed that the ratio has been constant for a very long time before the industrial revolution. Is this assumption correct? (For on it hangs the whole validity of the system.) Why did W.F. Libby, the brilliant discoverer of this system, assume this? Libby knew that C 14 was entering and leaving the atmosphere (and hence the carbon cycle). Because Libby believed that the Earth was millions of years old, he assumed that there had been plenty of time for the system to be in equilibrium.

This means that he thought that C 14 was entering the atmosphere as fast as it was leaving—calculations show that this should take place in about 30,000 years, and of course the Earth was much older than that, said the geologists. Imagine a tank with water flowing in at a certain rate, and flowing out again at the same rate (see diagram below). This system is in equilibrium. If you saw it for the first time, you wouldn’t be able to work out how old it was—how long it had been since it was ‘switched on’.

A = B, therefore system is in equilibrium If A is greater than B, then the tank is ‘filling up’ Was Libby right in this assumption? Was the C 14 entering and leaving the system at the same rate? In his day, the measurements and calculations, which he knew about, showed that C 14 was entering the system some 12-20% faster than it was leaving. Imagine the same tank, this time it is not yet full and the top tap is flowing more quickly than the bottom one is leaking out—this gives you a way of measuring how long ago the whole system was ‘switched on’ and it also tells you that that can’t have been too long ago (see diagram above).

Libby knew that if these figures were correct, it would mean that the atmosphere was young, so he dismissed the results as being due to experimental error! (We are not implying dishonesty here, merely showing how powerfully the evolutionary/uniformitarian concepts of Earth history influence great scientists to mould or discard evidence which appears to contradict that viewpoint.) What about modern measurements, using advanced technology such as satellites?

Unfortunately for the ‘old-Earth’ advocates, the studies of such renowned atmospheric physicists as Suess and Lingenfelter show that C 14 is entering the system some 30-32% faster than it is leaving it. The model of radiocarbon dating which Libby developed, using his incorrect ‘uniform’ assumption, must therefore be corrected to fit the facts about C 14—let us call the new, corrected model the ‘non-uniform’ model.

What does this mean? It implies that if the C 14 is still ‘building up’, we can calculate how old the whole system is—this puts an upper limit on the age of the atmosphere of some 7 to 10,000 years.

Also, it means that a thousand years ago, the C 14/C 12 ratio in the atmosphere was less than today (because the C 14 was still building up). Therefore a specimen which died a thousand years ago will show an older age than its true age. Two thousand years ago, specimens would have still less C 14 to start with, so they have an even greater error.

In other words, the further you go back, the more you have to shrink the radiocarbon dates to make them fit the facts. Remember that this correction is based on measurable scientific data, not on any creationist preconceptions. We need to consider two other effects: • If, as many creationists propose, there was a vast water vapour canopy around the Earth before the Flood, then this would have shielded the atmosphere from much of the cosmic radiation.

Therefore, the amount of C 14 in the pre-flood world would have been very small, perhaps even negligible. So a specimen from before the flood would appear to be ‘very old’ or even on ‘infinite’ age because it had so little C 14 in it, making it look as if it had been decaying for tens of thousands of years.

[Editor’ note: See for updated information on the ‘canopy theory’.] • The measured exponential decay of the Earth’s magnetic field, as described by Dr Thomas Barnes (see article last issue) suggests that as you go back in history, the strength of the field increases rapidly.

A stronger magnetic field would mean more protection against cosmic rays, therefore again much less C 14 produced and again this give artificially ‘old’ ages the more you go back in time. In summary then: • The C 14 in the atmosphere is not in equilibrium, but is building up rapidly. • This seems to put an upper limit on the age of the whole system in the order of 10,000 years.

• All radiocarbon dates have to be adjusted from the obviously incorrect ‘uniform’ model which is still in use today, and when this is done there is a shrinking in these dates. The older the date, the greater the reduction. • The protective water vapour canopy and the greater magnetic field before the flood would decrease C 14 levels in the past, causing greatly exaggerated C 14 ‘ages.’ In any case, even the incorrect ‘uniform’ model has given, in many cases, serious embarrassment to evolutionists by giving ages which are much younger than those he expects in terms of his model of earth history.

Consider this—if a specimen is older than 50,000 years, it has been calculated, it would have such a small amount of C 14 that for practical purposes it would show an ‘infinite’ radiocarbon age.

So it was expected that most deposits such as coal, gas, petrified trees, etc. would be un-dateable by this method. In fact, of 15,000 dates in the journal Radiocarbon to 1968, only three were classed ‘un-dateable’—most were of the sort which should have been in this category. This is especially remarkable with samples of coal and gas supposedly produced in the carboniferous 100 million years ago!

Some examples of dates which contradict orthodox (evolutionary) views: • Coal from Russia from the ‘Pennsylvanian’, supposedly 330 million years old, dated at 1,680 years. [Incorrect—this particular sample was charcoal from Kyrgyzstan, not coal from Russia.

But numerous instances of carbon-14 in coal have been reliably recorded—see Refs , below, as well as from our Creation Answers Book. Ed.] • Natural gas from Alabama and Mississippi (Cretaceous and Eocene, respectively)—should have been 50 to 135 million years old.

C 14 gave dates of 30,000 and 34,000, respectively. • Bones of a sabretooth tiger from the LaBrea tar pits, supposedly 100,000 years old, gave a date of 28,000. • A block of wood from the Cretaceous (supposedly more than 70 million years old) found encased in a block of Cambrian rock (hundreds of millions of years earlier), gave a date of 4,000 years.

Remember that all these dates are using the incorrect ‘uniform’ model. (refs. in The World and Time, pub. by Creation-Science Research Center) A question which could be asked after all this is: does radio-carbon, adjusted to fit the ‘non-uniform’ model, give any independent evidence of a worldwide catastrophe such as the Flood?

Certainly if there was such a Flood, as we maintain from several other lines of evidence and reasoning, most living things would have perished, and so we would expect a ‘cut-off’ point at this time. In other words, going into the past, we should reach a period of time in which there is a sharp reduction in the number of specimens compared to the period just older than that, and as we went forward in time, we would expect a gradual buildup, as plant and animal populations recovered their numbers.

Such a study has been done by Dr Robert Whitelaw. Using the 15,000 published dates previously mentioned after adjusting them as described, he grouped them into 500 year ‘blocks’ and found a dramatic drop-off about 5,000 years ago, with a worldwide distribution ( Speak to the Earth, Ed. G. Howe. Presb. & Ref. Pub. Co, p.. 331). Readers are referred to this article for other interesting conclusions about these dates. [Editor’s note: The graph below was reproduced from a sketch in the original magazine.

Note that the data presented does not necessarily endorse a particular age for the Earth, but reveals a pattern consistent with a recent creation and global flood model.] This excellent new resource contains 40 articles taken from the last 40 years of Creation magazine (with some updated, as necessary), covering a wide range of origin-topics—all bound together in a beautiful, hard-cover package.

128 brilliantly-illustrated pages packed with real-world evidence for biblical creation. We have supplied this link to an article on an external website in good faith. But we cannot assume responsibility for, nor be taken as endorsing in any way, any other content or links on any such site.

Even the article we are directing you to could, in principle, change without notice on sites we do not control. Creation Ministries International (CMI) exists to support the effective proclamation of the Gospel by providing credible answers that affirm the reliability of the Bible, in particular its Genesis history. CMI has offices in Australia, Canada, Singapore, New Zealand, United Kingdom, South Africa and United States of America. ©2018 Creation Ministries International.

best carbon dating explained for dummies

best carbon dating explained for dummies - Carbon

best carbon dating explained for dummies

GeyserTimes for iOS 1.1 The geyser gazing season is in full swing by now, so we’re happy to announce a new update for users of our iOS app that should further improve the experience while you seek out new geysers and new basins. It contains full support for comments, confirms, flags and attachments, a search interface for geysers as well as some sync improvements. Read on to learn more. Comments, Confirms, Flags and Attachments 🎉 You can now submit new comments, confirms, flags and attachments directly when viewing an eruption or note.

Simply tap the corresponding icon within the toolbar at the bottom of the screen and then enter the required details. Comment, confirm, flag and attach to your heart’s content For entries submitted by yourself there’s also the option to edit and delete those using the buttons presented inline within the table. Geyser search Want to quickly look up information on a specific geyser? We’ve got you covered. You can now search for geysers by hitting the looking glass icon at the top right of the Day Summary and Predictions tabs and then typing the desired geyser’s name.

Even more conveniently, you can use the global iOS Spotlight search which will also display the last time the geyser has been reported. Search geysers within the app and Spotlight search Sync improvements The app now is a lot more proactive in making sure you have the latest data available on your local copy of the database. It will automatically perform a sync when new data is available on the server as well as periodically try to pull in new changes from the server.

However, due to limitations within the iOS operating system, this will only work while the app is running (visible either directly or in the app switcher). Please keep this in mind the next time you have the urge to swipe away the GeyserTimes app. Other improvements This update also bundles countless other bug fixes and smaller improvements. Here’s a list of some of the more relevant changes: • Fixed a bug which caused the app to crash when trying to enter Grand eruptions.

Sorry about the somewhat lengthy turn-around time! • Added automated crash reporting so we have more details on future crashes and can hopefully resolve those quicker. • Added usage statistics tracking so we can focus on the areas of the app used the most.

This is 100% anonymous, yet you can disable this in the settings if you feel uncomfortable with it. We hope you’ll find these new enhancements useful. With 834 installs and 2124 entries the GeyserTimes for iOS app already seems to be a valuable and well-received addition. If you have any feedback, please contact us through one of the established communication channels.

We might not always respond, but we are always listening. Also, if you don’t have the app yet you can grab your free copy on the . Happy gazing and best of luck with your favorite geysers! The GeyserTimes development team GeyserTimes for iOS Beta 2 A lot of you have been impatiently waiting for this moment and we’re excited to announce that the wait is finally over!

The latest beta release of the GeyserTimes for iOS app now includes the ability to login and enter eruptions and notes, almost in time for the start of the new gazing season. We realize that this has taken us longer than expected and apologize for the delay. Important: please keep in mind that, unlike the Android app, you’ll currently need to manually refresh the data before heading out into the basin. If you don’t already have the app, please refer to our last introductory for instructions on installing the GeyserTimes for iOS Beta release.

What’s new? You can now log into your GeyserTimes account by selecting the More tab, tapping the sign in button and then entering your credentials. If you forgot your password you can reset it straight from within the app and if you happen to not have an account you can also sign up for one.

Login and account settings screens Once logged in, a plus icon will appear at the top right of the Day Summary and Predictions tabs. Tapping it will take you to the submit screens where eruptions and notes can be entered.

These include full compatibility with all fields currently supported by GeyserTimes, including Grand codes. Submitted entries are stored offline and will be synced with the server once a network connection becomes available. Submit screens for eruptions and notes Also, when viewing any eruptions and notes entered by yourself, you‘ll be presented with a pencil icon for editing the entry and a trash icon for deleting the entry.

This can be helpful for adding an eruption duration after submitting an entry, for example. Furthermore, we’ve squashed a few bugs that were present in our last beta release. Predictions by GeyserTimes are now correctly displayed and recalculated offline. Another issue where primary and secondary eruptions were not properly connected at times has also been fixed. If you have any issues logging in or entering data, feel free to contact us at and we’d be happy to help.

Note that signing into GeyserTimes is only strictly necessary if you want to enter eruptions or notes. All publicly available data can be viewed without an account. What’s next? As some of you might know, the normal yearly cost for an Apple developer account until recently was $99, regardless of any non-profit status. In a change of heart, however, Apple has decided to waive those fees for non-profit organizations last December and we are currently working with GOSA on acquiring such an account.

This is one of the reasons why the app still is a beta release and not available in the normal App Store. Huge thanks to the folks at GOSA for being willing to help! We’re also hopeful to have the next feature release ready sooner. This will primarily focus on getting full support for comments, confirms, flags and attachments ready.

In addition to that we’re also expecting to have automatic syncing onboard so you don’t have to worry about keeping your data up-to-date. Also planned is the ability to search for geysers both within the app and via the global Spotlight search. As always though, we cannot give any exact time frame since this largely depends on the amount of time each of us has available for development.

Thanks for your continued patience! Last, but not least, we’d like to thank all of you for dutifully entering your data into GeyserTimes. We sincerely hope that the addition of the iOS app will make it easier and more convenient for you to continue to do so in the future. If you have any suggestions or feedback, please don’t hesitate and let us know! We wish you all a fun and joyful 2018 gazing season!

The GeyserTimes development team GeyserTimes for Android 4.0.1 In the past year we’ve primarily worked to improve the stability of the GeyserTimes Android app, migrating to the which should allow for easier maintenance in the future. However we’ve also managed to add a couple of other enhancements and new features which will be discussed in more detail below.

Updated submit screens The submit screens have been reorganized to make it easier to enter data. Improvements include direct search for geysers and a new duration timer which should make it easier to submit eruption durations to the database. While we realize you’ll need to get accustomed to the new layout, we believe it is easier to understand and more structured for newcomers who want to contribute data. Updated entry screens with duration timer for eruptions The new duration timer can be started by pressing the “Start” button.

Once the eruption has finished press the “Pause” button to stop the timer, should the eruption continue (I’m looking at you, Grand) you can press the “Start” button again and the stopwatch will continue. Entries with a running timer can be safely submitted without influencing the stopwatch. Offline predictions The GeyserTimes website introduced a new prediction system some time ago that included additional geysers and a more flexible calculation system based on a set of parameters (e.g.

add 92 minutes after an Old Faithful long). The Android app has now finally caught up with this development and displays all the predictions using the updated system. Best of all: it also works offline, which is especially helpful for geysers located in the Lower Geyser Basin.

Simply enter a new eruption and the prediction will be recalculated. Echinus, here we come! Advanced statistics When viewing the recent geyser activity there now is a “More statistics” button below the calculated interval statistics that will take you to the interval and duration charts, allowing you to analyze the recent geyser behavior at a glance.

Interval and duration charts for in-depth analysis Just like any other statistics you encounter these should be carefully interpreted though — some geysers have incomplete data or don’t erupt often enough to gain much insight. More often than not, this is more of a fun and intriguing chart than a scientific tool. Better platform integration We’ve also improved the overall integration of the app with the Android system.

The login, signup and forgot password screens have finally been updated to Material Design, Google’s new design language introduced with Android Lollipop, and web links are now handled by the GeyserTimes app, allowing you to view entries from a web search directly within the app.

Most information is now also easily shareable with other apps such as Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp. App shortcuts have been introduced to allow quicker access to relevant areas within the app (accessed by long-pressing the launcher icon on Android 7.1 Nougat and above).

On compatible devices, such as the Samsung Galaxy S and Note series, you’ll also be seeing popups on eruptions and notes that include additional details by hovering over the entry with your finger or pen. App shortcuts and popups for quicker access to information Other notable enhancements include the ability to select more than 10 favorite geysers and to selectively filter unwanted geysers in the day summary and timeline (who wants to see all those Old Faithfuls, right?).

You can find these options within the application settings. Your feedback is very important to us, which is why we’ve included a new “Feedback” item in the navigation menu. Don’t hesitate to drop us a few lines and let us know how we’re doing. If you don’t have the app already, download it now on , it’s free and you won’t regret it.

Thank you for using GeyserTimes and happy gazing, The GeyserTimes development team GeyserTimes for iOS Beta Some of you have already been waiting for this moment for quite a while, and now it has finally arrived.

Today we are announcing the first beta version for the GeyserTimes for iOS app that can be installed using TestFlight. If you can’t wait, skip ahead to the section How can I get it?. There are some important limitations currently that you should be aware of and which will be addressed in future updates. Mainly, the ability to login and enter eruptions and notes is missing, but we feel ability to browse GeyserTimes data while offline might already prove useful to some of you.

Rest assured that the other features will be added as soon as possible. This post serves as an overview of what has been done and what is planned for the future. What has been done? Most of the items related to viewing data from GeyserTimes have already been implemented. As with the Android app, everything is available offline so it can be accessed without any internet connection, something indispensable given Yellowstone’s spotty network.

The main screen displayed when starting the app presents the day summary or timeline. You can switch to the current predictions and the Old Faithful streaming webcam using the tabs at the bottom. The three main areas: day summary or timeline, predictions and webcam Tapping on an entry will take you to the details, including any comments, confirms, flags or attachments available for that entry, which will be displayed below the detailed entry information. Tapping on a geyser or user will take you to the appropriate detail page with their recent entries.

You should find all information displayed on the website within the app. One notable exception is the lack of statistics (min, max, mean and median intervals) which will be added later. Detailed information for eruptions, notes, geysers and users If you require any support using the app feel free to contact us at and we will do our best to help out.

What is planned for the future? Apple has two types of releases, both of which go through the App Store review process. Store releases are reviewed more thoroughly and are available to download from the App Store that most of you know. Beta releases are only available for download within the TestFlight app from Apple, which is designed to distribute beta releases as well as ease the feedback process.

The GeyserTimes for iOS app will likely go through a couple of Beta releases before it will be made available as an App Store release. The obvious next step will be the implementation of account functions (login and logout) as well as the ability to enter, edit and delete eruptions and notes, after which a new Beta release will be published.

After that comments, confirms, flags and attachments will be tackled, probably in a separate Beta release. We will let you know once those are ready in a different blog post. Once all this is done we will make the app ready for a wider release in the App Store. Unfortunately, we can not give a time frame when this is going to happen due to frequent changes in the time available for development. We would like to thank you all for your patience in this matter.

How can I get it? The GeyserTimes for iOS app is only available as a Beta version at this time, which is why it can’t be downloaded directly from the App Store. The few extra steps necessary are outlined here. Just follow these step-by-step and you should be good to go. • Send an empty mail with the subject “GeyserTimes for iOS Beta” to from the email address you use for your Apple account.

• Wait for a mail inviting you to join the beta testers for the GeyserTimes for iOS app. Since we need to manually add all testers this might take a few ays. We will try to process those as fast as we can.

• Download or open the TestFlight app provided by Apple using the button present in the invitation mail.

This should guide you through the process of installing the GeyserTimes for iOS app. We hope you enjoy this new addition to the GeyserTimes ecosystem and don’t encounter too many issues. Be aware though that this is beta software, so the occasional bug is expected.

Feedback can be provided using the TestFlight app or any of the more established channels for communications. We already look forward to hearing from you! Thanks for your continued support and happy gazing, The GeyserTimes development team The 2016 Summer season has now come to a close in Yellowstone.

We would like to thank everyone for using GeyserTimes. It is because of the people that enter data that makes this project as valuable as it is to the entire community. Attached is a summary of the data that the community collected during this last summer.

Thanks for making GT what it is today! We’ve been working on enhancements to GeyserTimes, mostly on the electronic data logger side of things, to help with collecting, analyzing and reporting on electronically monitored geysers. These include: • A new punchcard to show available data for data loggers. • Notes for data loggers • Additional admin data logger functions I’m very excited that there have been two recent permits issued in Yellowstone to study geysers. I’m proud that GeyserTimes has been identified as a way to help make such data available to the public.

In non-data logger improvements, GeyserTimes now shows flagged eruptions with a flag icon on both the home page and individual geyser pages. Happy Gazing, Jake We just put some new features on the site tonight! • Initial to initial stats • Search bar behavior fix • Fixed a timezone issue on the data logger charts • Fixed some problems with long usernames and their behavior in the header bar • Interval display – If two consecutive eruptions are entered in to the second resolution the interval will display seconds • Some fixes and additions to the data logger management system • Cleaned up some old files • Removed v3 of the API.

Please use v4. FYI to anybody using our API. We will be turning off v3 very soon. Please make sure your scripts are using v4 of the API. This winter we will be working on a v5 of the API that will include more functions. Information on how to use our API is listed at Posts navigation

best carbon dating explained for dummies

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Discover the joys and benefitsof riding a bike Whether you're looking to join the Lycra brigade, tear down mountain bike trails or simply teach yourself — or your child — how to ride, this practical guide covers all your needs, from choosing the right bike and accessories to hitting the road and trails. Improve your health and fitness, reduce your carbon footprint and have fun along the way!

... Packed with expert advice and timely tips The fun and easy way to guide your team to glory in fantasy football Fantasy football can be an addictive hobby. But if you've never played before, how do you start? Have no fear! This friendly guide explains the game to you from start to finish -- from scouting and drafting your players to building your coaching skills to planning your strategy.

And who knows, perhaps even to tasting victory in your league ... Created especially for Australian customer! This book puts more fish on your line! Want to dangle a line anywhere in Australia or New Zealand?

On the way to becoming a successful angler, discover how to choose your tackle confidently, master rigs and knots, read your fishing environment, cast efficiently and take home more fish for the table — all while ... Make fishing easier and more rewarding every time you pick up your rod and reel No one can promise that you will catch fish all the time.

For as long as we've been catching fish, fish have been outsmarting us. But there are tips and pointers that even the most seasoned anglers can pick up! Fishing For Dummies helps you prepare for what awaits beyond the shore. From trout to carp and bass to bonefish, you'll get coverage of the latest and greatest techniques ... If you believe what you read, fly fishing requires the touch of a surgeon and the spirit of a Zen master. Forget about what you’ve heard about f ly fishing in the past, if you really want to learn how to fly fish all you need are the right tools, proper technique, and a positive attitude.

With these essential elements you can begin to enjoy the sport of fly fishing in no time. For those of you who have never held a fly rod, you will find enough information ...

Tackle everything about football with this comprehensive guide from the pros! Always wanted to understand football, but don't know your X's from your O's? Football For Dummies has you covered! This fun, easy-to-read guide offers a comprehensive overview of the game.

Former professional player and current NFL analyst Howie Long teams up with professional football consultant John Czarnecki to guide you through the game like no one else can, with analysis ... Tackle football basics in a day? Easy. If you've ever wanted to know the difference between a touchdown and a touchback, or how a running back's role differs from a linebacker's, this handy guide gets you up-to-speed in no time. Football Rules & Positions In A Day For Dummies gives you a focused guide to the rules, regulations, and player roles of one of the most popular American sports.

... Get to know what Formula One racing is all about This book delves into the strategy, technology, and spirit needed to win a Formula One race. Every angle of a race weekend is covered in detail, from scrutineering to pitstops to podium. You’ll also read about the rivalries and politics that have turned the sport into a global televised drama. Illustrated with black and white photographs, Formula One Racing For Dummies will serve the die-hard spectator ...

Dummies has always stood for taking on complex concepts and making them easy to understand. Dummies helps everyone be more knowledgeable and confident in applying what they know. Whether it's to pass that big test, qualify for that big promotion or even master that cooking technique; people who rely on dummies, rely on it to learn the critical skills and relevant information necessary for success.

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